AFFORDABLE PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY TUITION

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List of Topics Covered by LiveScience

  • AQA_B A Level Physics
  • Unit 1
  • 1. The World of Music
  • A. What is music?
  • Origin of waves
  • Types of Wave
  • Polarisation of Waves
  • Polarisation question 1
  • Properties of Waves
  • Decibels
  • Human Hearing
  • Standing and Progressive waves
  • Standing waves question 1
  • Waves in Strings
  • Waves in Strings question 1
  • Waves in Strings question 2
  • Waves in Strings question 3
  • Waves in Strings question 4
  • Harmonics and Overtones
  • Experiments with stationary waves
  • Finding the speed of sound
  • Beats
  • Speed of sound
  • B. Analogue or Digital
  • Analogue and Digital
  • Analogue and Digital question 1
  • Analogue and Digital question 2
  • Compression and filtration
  • Recording and reproduction
  • Noise in communication systems
  • C. Storage and Playback
  • Compact Disc
  • Youngs slits
  • Interference question 1
  • Diffraction grating
  • Comparing diffraction patterns
  • Diffraction grating question 1
  • Diffraction grating question 2
  • Phase difference
  • Phase difference and path difference
  • Copying and copyright
  • D. Transmitting Data
  • Carrier waves
  • Time division multiplexing
  • Reflection and refraction
  • Total internal reflection
  • Optical fibres
  • Optics question 1
  • Optics question 2
  • Radio communication
  • Radio communication question 1
  • Satellite communication
  • Satellite communication question 1
  • Satellite communication question 2
  • Transmitting data question 1
  • Transmitting data question 2
  • 2. From Quarks to Quasars
  • A. Smaller and Smaller
  • Nuclear atom
  • Discovering Electrons
  • Discovering protons and neutrons
  • Nuclear changes in radioactive decay
  • Evidence for the existence of atoms
  • What next?
  • B. Wave or Particle?
  • Electron diffraction
  • The photo-electric effect
  • The photo-electric effect question 1
  • The ultraviolet catastrophe
  • Wave-particle duality
  • C. The Particle Picture
  • Evidence of neutrinos
  • Quarks and leptons
  • Hadrons
  • Big bang
  • Discovery of quarks
  • Particles question 1
  • Particles question 2
  • Particles question 3
  • Particles question 4
  • Mass and the Higgs boson
  • D. Forces of Nature
  • Forces of nature
  • E. Larger and larger
  • Black body radiation and Wien's law
  • Doppler effect
  • Doppler effect question 1
  • Doppler effect question 2
  • Emission and absorption spectra
  • Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
  • Hubble's law
  • Hubble's law question 1
  • Ionisation and excitation
  • Energy levels question 1
  • Life of a star
  • Quasars
  • Star properties from spectra
  • The electron-volt
  • The power of stars
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Question 1
  • Question 2
  • Question 3
  • Question 4
  • Question 5
  • Question 6
  • Question 7
  • Question 8
  • Question 9
  • Question 10
  • Jan-09
  • Question 1 Quarks
  • Question 2 Sounds
  • Question 3 CD and DVD
  • Question 4 Optical fibres
  • Question 5 Exchange particles
  • Question 6 Sounds
  • Question 7 Photoelectric effect
  • Question 8 Big bang
  • Question 9 Star spectra
  • Question 10 Satellites
  • Unit 2
  • 1. Moving People, People Moving
  • A. How is motion described?
  • Resolving vectors
  • Vector addition problems
  • Vectors and scalars
  • Vectors question 1
  • Vectors question 2
  • Vectors question 3
  • Vectors question 4
  • Vectors question 5
  • Vectors question 6
  • Vectors question 7
  • B. How do forces act?
  • Equilibrium
  • Three forces in equilibrium
  • Free body force diagrams
  • C. How does motion change?
  • Derivation of the equations of motion for uniform acceleration
  • Motion graphs
  • Using the equations of motion
  • D. What makes motion change?
  • Diving
  • Force, mass and acceleration
  • Momentum and impulse
  • Motion with air resistance
  • Non-uniform acceleration
  • Projectiles
  • Projectiles question 1
  • Projectiles question 2
  • E. What energy changes occur?
  • Energy changes
  • Power
  • Spring stiffness
  • Energy question 1
  • Energy question 2
  • Energy question 3
  • Questions
  • Motion question 1
  • Motion question 2
  • Motion question 3
  • Motion question 4
  • Motion question 5
  • Motion question 6
  • Motion question 7
  • 2. Energy and the environment
  • A. Where does our energy come from and where does it go?
  • Energy resources
  • Sankey diagrams
  • Units of energy and power
  • B. Impact of energy conversion
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Archimedes principle
  • Greenhouse effect
  • Global warming
  • Density
  • C. Using electrical energy
  • Circuit symbols
  • Resistance
  • Charge, current, potential difference
  • Current and p.d. in series and parallel circuits
  • Electrical power
  • Resistors in series and parallel
  • Potential divider
  • EMF and internal resistance
  • Internal resistance question 1
  • Internal resistance question 2
  • Internal resistance question 3
  • Superconductivity
  • Resistivity
  • Resistivity question 1
  • Resistivity question 2
  • Energy distribution
  • Potential dividers to control volume and temperature
  • Why electricity?
  • Electric circuits question 1
  • Electric circuits question 2
  • Electric circuits question 3
  • Electric circuits question 4
  • Electric circuits question 5
  • Electric circuits question 6
  • Electric circuits question 7
  • Electric circuits question 8
  • Electric circuits question 9
  • D. Sources of renewable energy
  • Inverse square law
  • Advantages and disadvantages of different energy sources
  • Energy in tidal barrages, HEP and pumped storage systems
  • Wave power
  • Wind power
  • Solar power
  • Electricity generation question 1
  • Electricity generation question 2
  • Electricity generation question 3
  • E. Efficient use of energy
  • Rechargeable cells
  • Efficiency
  • Convection and Newton's law of cooling
  • Efficiency of lamps
  • Conduction of heat
  • Radiation of heat
  • U-values
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Question 1
  • Question 2
  • Question 3
  • Question 4
  • Question 5
  • Question 6
  • Question 7
  • Question 8
  • Question 9
  • Question 10
  • Question 11
  • Question 12
  • Jan-09
  • Q1 Power
  • Q2 Acceleration
  • Q3 Forces
  • Q4 Energy
  • Q5 Solar panel
  • Q6 Thermistor
  • Q7 Resistivity
  • Q8 Velocity time graph
  • Q9 Projectiles
  • Q10 U values
  • Q11 Solar cells
  • Q12 Electrical power
  • Unit 4
  • 1. Experiences out of this world
  • A. Attracted to the Earth
  • Weight
  • Apparent weight in lifts
  • Viscosity
  • Stokes' law and terminal velocity
  • Stokes' law question 1
  • Newton's law of gravitation
  • Gravitation question 1
  • Gravitation question 2
  • Angular velocity
  • Centripetal force
  • Circular motion question 1
  • Circular motion question 2
  • Circular motion question 3
  • Circular motion question 4
  • Circular motion question 5
  • Orbits
  • Orbits question 1
  • Orbits question 2
  • B. Leaving the Earth
  • Gravitational field lines and equipotential surfaces
  • Changes in gravitational potential energy
  • Gravitational potential
  • Gravitational potential question 1
  • Escape velocity
  • Escape velocity and black holes
  • Escape velocity question 1
  • C. It is rocket science
  • Momentum, impulse and Newton's third law
  • Momentum question 1
  • Momentum question 2
  • Elastic and inelastic collisions
  • Forces acting on rockets
  • Rocket propulsion
  • Rocket fuels
  • The rocket equation
  • Ideal gas equation
  • Rockets and the ideal gas equation
  • Pressure
  • First law of thermodynamics
  • Work done by expanding gases
  • AQA_A A Level Physics
  • Unit 1
  • 1. Particles and Radiation
  • Constituents of the atom
  • Constituents of the atom
  • Stable and unstable nuclei
  • Alpha and beta minus decay
  • The strong nuclear force
  • Particles, antiparticles and photons
  • Particles and antiparticles
  • Photons
  • Particle interactions
  • Particle interactions
  • Classification of particles
  • Hadrons
  • Quarks and antiquarks
  • Quarks and antiquarks
  • Conservation laws
  • Particles question 1
  • Particles question 2
  • Particles question 3
  • Particles question 4
  • 2. Electromagnetic radiation and quantum phenomena
  • The photoelectric effect
  • The photo-electric effect
  • The photo-electric effect question 1
  • Collisions of electrons with atoms
  • The electron-volt
  • The fluorescent tube
  • Energy levels and photon emission
  • Ionisation and excitation
  • Energy levels question 1
  • Wave-particle duality
  • Wave-particle duality
  • Electron diffraction
  • 3. Current electricity
  • Charge, current and potential difference
  • Charge, current, potential difference
  • Current/voltage characteristics
  • Current/voltage characteristics
  • Resistivity
  • Resistivity
  • Resistivity question 1
  • Resistivity question 2
  • Superconductivity
  • Circuits
  • Circuit symbols
  • Resistors in series and parallel
  • Potential divider
  • Potential divider
  • Potential dividers to control volume, temperature and light
  • Electromotive force and internal resistance
  • EMF and internal resistance
  • Internal resistance question 1
  • Internal resistance question 2
  • Internal resistance question 3
  • Alternating currents
  • Alternating current
  • Oscilloscope
  • Oscilloscope
  • Electric circuits question
  • Electric circuits question 1
  • Electric circuits question 2
  • Electric circuits question 3
  • Electric circuits question 4
  • Electric circuits question 5
  • Electric circuits question 6
  • Electric circuits question 7
  • Electric circuits question 8
  • Electric circuits question 9
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Constituents of the atom
  • Q2 Particles
  • Q3 Particle interactions
  • Q4 Photoelectric effect
  • Q5 Current electricity
  • Q6 Current electricity
  • Q7 Oscilloscope
  • Unit 2
  • 1. Mechanics
  • Scalars and vectors
  • Vectors and scalars
  • Resolving vectors
  • Vector addition problems
  • Vectors question 1
  • Vectors question 2
  • Vectors question 3
  • Vectors question 4
  • Vectors question 5
  • Vectors question 6
  • Vectors question 7
  • Equilibrium
  • Three forces in equilibrium
  • Free body force diagrams
  • Moments
  • Moments
  • Human forearm
  • Couples
  • Moments question 1
  • Motion along a straight line
  • Derivation of the equations of motion for uniform acceleration
  • Motion graphs
  • Using the equations of motion
  • Diving
  • Motion with air resistance
  • Projectile motion
  • Projectiles
  • Projectiles question 1
  • Projectiles question 2
  • Newton's laws of motion
  • Newton's laws of motion
  • Force, mass and acceleration
  • Motion question
  • Motion question 1
  • Motion question 2
  • Motion question 3
  • Motion question 4
  • Motion question 5
  • Motion question 6
  • Motion question 7
  • Work, energy and power
  • Efficiency
  • Power
  • Conservation of energy
  • Energy changes
  • Energy question 1
  • Energy question 2
  • Energy question 3
  • 2. materials
  • Bulk properties of solids
  • Density
  • Springs
  • Deforming solids
  • The Young modulus
  • Young modulus
  • Materials question
  • Materials question 1
  • Materials question 2
  • 3. Waves
  • Progressive waves
  • Origin of waves
  • Types of Wave
  • Properties of Waves
  • Longitudinal and transverse waves
  • Polarisation of Waves
  • Polarisation question 1
  • Refraction at a plane surface
  • Reflection and refraction
  • Total internal reflection
  • Optical fibres
  • Optics question 1
  • Optics question 2
  • Superposition of waves, stationary waves
  • Standing and Progressive waves
  • Standing waves question 1
  • Harmonics and Overtones
  • Experiments with stationary waves
  • Finding the speed of sound
  • Interference
  • Interference
  • Light sources
  • Youngs slits
  • Phase difference
  • Phase difference and path difference
  • Interference question 1
  • Diffraction
  • Single slit diffraction
  • Diffraction grating
  • Comparing diffraction patterns
  • Diffraction grating question 1
  • Diffraction grating question 2
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Moments and motion
  • Q2 Forces and motion
  • Q3 Materials
  • Q4 Interference
  • Q5 Optical fibres
  • Q6 Stationary waves
  • OCR_A A Level Physics
  • Unit 1
  • 1. Motion
  • Physical quantities and units
  • Physical quantities and units
  • Scalars and vectors
  • Vectors and scalars
  • Resolving vectors
  • Vector addition problems
  • Vectors question 1
  • Vectors question 2
  • Vectors question 3
  • Vectors question 4
  • Vectors question 5
  • Vectors question 6
  • Vectors question 7
  • Kinematics
  • Definitions in kinematics
  • Motion graphs
  • Linear motion
  • Derivation of the equations of motion for uniform acceleration
  • Using the equations of motion
  • Diving
  • Galileo and Aristotle
  • Measuring g
  • Motion question 1
  • Motion question 2
  • Motion question 3
  • Motion question 4
  • Motion question 5
  • Motion question 6
  • Motion question 7
  • Projectiles
  • Projectiles question 1
  • Projectiles question 2
  • 2. Forces in action
  • Force
  • Force, mass and acceleration
  • The newton and special relativity
  • Non-linear motion
  • Motion with air resistance
  • Weight
  • Equilibrium
  • Equilibrium
  • Three forces in equilibrium
  • Centre of gravity
  • Moments
  • Human forearm
  • Couples
  • Moments question 1
  • Density
  • Pressure
  • Car safety
  • Car stopping
  • Car safety
  • Global positioning system
  • 3. Work and energy
  • Work and conservation of energy
  • Work and conservation of energy
  • Energy question 1
  • Energy question 2
  • Energy question 3
  • Kinetic and potential energies
  • Kinetic and potential energies
  • Power
  • Power
  • Efficiency
  • Sankey diagrams
  • Behaviour of springs and materials
  • Spring stiffness
  • Springs
  • Deforming solids
  • More on deforming solids
  • Young modulus
  • Materials question 1
  • Materials question 2
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Vectors, scalars and motion
  • Q2 Motion
  • Q3 Energy
  • Q4 Springs
  • Q5 Car safety
  • Q6 Moments
  • Q7 materials
  • Unit 2
  • 1. Electric current
  • Charge and current
  • Charge and Current
  • Current in series and parallel circuits
  • Drift velocity
  • 2. Resistance
  • Circuit symbols
  • Circuit symbols
  • E.m.f. and p.d.
  • E.m.f. and p.d.
  • Resistance
  • Resistance
  • Current/voltage characteristics
  • Resistivity
  • Resistivity
  • Resistivity question 1
  • Resistivity question 2
  • Power
  • Electrical power
  • The kilowatt-hour
  • Fuses
  • 3. DC circuits
  • Series and parallel circuits
  • Kirchhoff's laws
  • Applying Kirchhoff's laws
  • Resistors in series and parallel
  • EMF and internal resistance
  • Internal resistance question 1
  • Internal resistance question 2
  • Internal resistance question 3
  • Practical circuits
  • Potential divider
  • Potential dividers to control volume, temperature and light
  • Electric circuits question
  • Electric circuits question 1
  • Electric circuits question 2
  • Electric circuits question 3
  • Electric circuits question 4
  • Electric circuits question 5
  • Electric circuits question 6
  • Electric circuits question 7
  • Electric circuits question 8
  • Electric circuits question 9
  • 4. Waves
  • Wave motion
  • Properties of Waves
  • Reflection, refraction and diffraction
  • Electromagnetic waves
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Polarisation of Waves
  • Interference
  • Interference
  • Phase difference
  • Young's slits
  • Phase difference and path difference
  • Diffraction grating
  • Comparing diffraction patterns
  • Finding the wavelength of light
  • Intensity
  • Diffraction grating question 1
  • Diffraction grating question 2
  • Interference question 1
  • Stationary waves
  • Standing and Progressive waves
  • Standing waves question 1
  • Harmonics and Overtones
  • Experiments with stationary waves
  • Finding the speed of sound
  • 5. Quantum physics
  • Energy of a photon
  • Photons
  • The electron-volt
  • Electric potential to kinetic energy
  • Estimating the Planck constant
  • The photoelectric effect
  • The photo-electric effect
  • The photo-electric effect question 1
  • Wave-particle duality
  • Wave-particle duality
  • Electron diffraction
  • Energy levels in atoms
  • Ionisation and excitation
  • Emission and absorption spectra
  • Energy levels question 1
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Electric current
  • Q2 Electric circuits
  • Q3 Potential dividers
  • Q4 Electromagnetic radiation
  • Q5 Standing waves
  • Q6 Interference
  • Q7 Photoelectric effect
  • Q8 Energy units
  • OCR_B A Level Physics
  • Unit 1
  • 1. Communication
  • Imaging
  • Pixels and resolution
  • Pulse echo
  • Properties of Waves
  • Types of Wave
  • Polarisation of Waves
  • Polarisation question 1
  • Reflection and refraction
  • Lenses
  • Information in images
  • Sensing
  • Uncertainty and error
  • Sensing terms
  • Circuit symbols
  • Resistance
  • Conductance
  • Charge, current, potential difference
  • Current and p.d. in series and parallel circuits
  • Current/voltage characteristics
  • Electrical power
  • Resistors in series and parallel
  • Potential divider
  • EMF and internal resistance
  • Internal resistance question 1
  • Internal resistance question 2
  • Internal resistance question 3
  • Potential dividers to control volume and temperature
  • Electric circuits question 1
  • Electric circuits question 2
  • Electric circuits question 3
  • Electric circuits question 4
  • Electric circuits question 5
  • Electric circuits question 6
  • Electric circuits question 7
  • Electric circuits question 8
  • Electric circuits question 9
  • Signalling
  • Analogue and Digital
  • Sampling and noise
  • Rate of transmission
  • Waveforms, spectra and bandwidth
  • Analogue and Digital question 1
  • Analogue and Digital question 2
  • Compact Disc
  • Polarisation of Waves
  • Polarisation question 1
  • Time division multiplexing
  • 2. Designer materials
  • Testing materials
  • Resistivity
  • Conductivity
  • Metals, semiconductors and insulators
  • Springs
  • Deforming solids
  • More on deforming solids
  • Young modulus
  • Materials question
  • Materials question 1
  • Materials question 2
  • Looking inside materials
  • Structure of solids
  • Imaging atoms
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Electrical units
  • Q2 Sensors
  • Q3 Images
  • Q4 Waves and sampling
  • Q5 Sampling and noise
  • Q6 Materials
  • Q7 Electrical power
  • Q8 Uncertainty
  • Q9 Lenses
  • Q10 Potential dividers
  • Q11 Measuring
  • Q12 Size of molecules
  • Unit 2
  • 1. Waves and quantum behaviour
  • Wave behaviour
  • Phase difference
  • Standing and Progressive waves
  • Standing waves question 1
  • Waves in Strings
  • Waves in Strings question 1
  • Waves in Strings question 2
  • Waves in Strings question 3
  • Waves in Strings question 4
  • Harmonics and Overtones
  • Experiments with stationary waves
  • Finding the speed of sound
  • Interference
  • Youngs slits
  • Phase difference and path difference
  • Single slit diffraction
  • Diffraction grating
  • Comparing diffraction patterns
  • Diffraction grating question 1
  • Diffraction grating question 2
  • Measuring the speed of light
  • The photo-electric effect
  • The photo-electric effect question 1
  • Emission and absorption spectra
  • Interference question 1
  • Quantum behaviour
  • Electron diffraction
  • Phasors
  • Phasors, probability and all paths
  • Phasors and reflection
  • Phasors and refraction
  • 2. Space, time and motion
  • Mapping space and time
  • Motion graphs
  • Resolving vectors
  • Vector addition problems
  • Vectors and scalars
  • Relative velocity
  • Vectors question 1
  • Vectors question 2
  • Vectors question 3
  • Vectors question 4
  • Vectors question 5
  • Vectors question 6
  • Vectors question 7
  • Computing the next move
  • Derivation of the equations of motion for uniform acceleration
  • Using the equations of motion
  • Motion question 1
  • Motion question 2
  • Motion question 3
  • Motion question 4
  • Motion question 5
  • Motion question 6
  • Motion question 7
  • Projectiles
  • Projectiles question 1
  • Projectiles question 2
  • Energy changes
  • Energy question 1
  • Energy question 2
  • Energy question 3
  • Power
  • Force, mass and acceleration
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Motion and energy
  • Q2 Phasors
  • Q3 Car stopping
  • Q4 Photons
  • Q5 Motion
  • Q6 Forces
  • Q7 Testing relationships
  • Q8 Motion and forces
  • Q9 Diffraction
  • Q10 Energy
  • Q11 Photons and phasors
  • Q12 Measuring
  • Q13 Measuring
  • Q14 Motion and uncertainties
  • Q15 Motion and energy
  • Edexcel A Level Physics
  • Unit 1
  • Mechanics
  • Equations of motion
  • Derivation of the equations of motion for uniform acceleration
  • Using the equations of motion
  • Motion graphs
  • Motion graphs
  • Non-uniform acceleration
  • Non-uniform acceleration
  • Motion with air resistance
  • Motion question
  • Motion question 1
  • Motion question 2
  • Motion question 3
  • Motion question 4
  • Motion question 5
  • Motion question 6
  • Motion question 7
  • Projectiles
  • Projectiles
  • Projectiles question 1
  • Projectiles question 2
  • Scalars and vectors
  • Resolving vectors
  • Vector addition problems
  • Vectors and scalars
  • Vectors question 1
  • Vectors question 2
  • Vectors question 3
  • Vectors question 4
  • Vectors question 5
  • Vectors question 6
  • Vectors question 7
  • Free body force diagrams
  • Free body force diagrams
  • Centre of gravity
  • Force, mass and acceleration
  • Force, mass and acceleration
  • Weight
  • Falling under gravity
  • Measuring g
  • Motion
  • Newton's laws of motion
  • Energy changes
  • Energy changes
  • Car safety
  • Energy question 1
  • Energy question 2
  • Energy question 3
  • Power
  • Power
  • Materials
  • Springs
  • Springs
  • Deformation of solids
  • Deforming solids
  • More on deforming solids
  • Young modulus
  • Young modulus
  • Density
  • Density
  • Motion with air resistance
  • Motion with air resistance
  • Archimedes principle
  • Archimedes principle
  • Fluid flow
  • Fluid flow
  • Viscosity
  • Viscosity
  • Stokes' Law and terminal velocity
  • Stokes' Law and terminal velocity
  • Materials question
  • Materials question 1
  • Materials question 2
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Vectors
  • Q2 Materials
  • Q3 Newton's laws
  • Q4 Projectiles
  • Q5 Projectiles
  • Q6 Falling
  • Q7 Kinetic energy
  • Q8 Falling
  • Q9 Projectiles
  • Q10 Materials
  • Q11 Materials
  • Q12 Energy
  • Q13 Falling
  • Q14 Turbulence
  • Q15 Materials
  • Q16 Falling
  • Q17 Energy
  • Q18 Falling
  • Q19 Materials
  • Q20 Projectiles
  • Q21 Materials
  • Q22 Vectors, materials
  • Unit 2
  • Waves
  • Origin of waves
  • Origin of waves
  • Types of wave
  • Types of Wave
  • Properties of waves
  • Properties of Waves
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Wavefronts and rays
  • Wavefronts and rays
  • Standing and progressive waves
  • Standing and Progressive waves
  • Harmonics and Overtones
  • Experiments with stationary waves
  • Finding the speed of sound
  • Standing waves question 1
  • Waves in Strings
  • Waves in Strings question 1
  • Waves in Strings question 2
  • Waves in Strings question 3
  • Waves in Strings question 4
  • Phase difference
  • Phase difference
  • Phase difference and path difference
  • Reflection and refraction
  • Reflection and refraction
  • Measuring refractive index
  • Total internal reflection
  • Total internal reflection
  • Polarisation
  • Polarisation of Waves
  • Uses of polarisation
  • Polarisation question 1
  • Diffraction
  • Single slit diffraction
  • Electron diffraction
  • Electron diffraction
  • Interference
  • Youngs slits
  • Interference question 1
  • Pulse echo
  • Pulse echo
  • Doppler effect
  • Doppler effect
  • Doppler radar
  • DC Electricity
  • Circuits
  • Circuit symbols
  • Resistance
  • Resistance
  • Current voltage characteristics
  • Current/voltage characteristics
  • Charge, current, potential difference
  • Charge, current, potential difference
  • Current and p.d. in series and parallel circuits
  • Current and p.d. in series and parallel circuits
  • Electrical power
  • Electrical power
  • Resistors in series and parallel
  • Resistors in series and parallel
  • Units of energy and power
  • Units of energy and power
  • Potential divider
  • Potential divider
  • EMF and internal resistance
  • EMF and internal resistance
  • Internal resistance question 1
  • Internal resistance question 2
  • Internal resistance question 3
  • Resistivity
  • Resistivity
  • Resistivity question 1
  • Resistivity question 2
  • Drift velocity
  • Electric circuits question
  • Electric circuits question 1
  • Electric circuits question 2
  • Electric circuits question 3
  • Electric circuits question 4
  • Electric circuits question 5
  • Electric circuits question 6
  • Electric circuits question 7
  • Electric circuits question 8
  • Nature of light
  • Wave particle duality
  • Wave particle duality
  • The photo-electric effect
  • The photo-electric effect
  • The photo-electric effect question 1
  • The electron-volt
  • The electron-volt
  • Ionisation and excitation
  • Ionisation and excitation
  • Emission and absorption spectra
  • Emission and absorption spectra
  • Efficiency
  • Efficiency
  • Radiation flux
  • Radiation flux
  • Energy levels
  • Energy levels question 1
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Circuits
  • Q2 Circuits
  • Q3 Electrical energy
  • Q4 Light
  • Q5 Electrical characteristics
  • Q6 Standing waves
  • Q7 Progressive waves
  • Q8 Waves
  • Q9 Waves
  • Q10 Waves
  • Q11 Total internal reflection
  • Q12 Polarisation
  • Q13 Refraction
  • Q14 Circuits
  • Q15 X-Rays
  • Q16 Standing waves
  • Q17 Refraction
  • Q18 Photon energy
  • Q19 Conduction of electricity
  • Q20 Photo-electric effect
  • Q21 Ultrasound
  • Q22 Internal resistance
  • CCEA A Level Physics
  • Unit 1
  • Forces, energy and electricity
  • Physical quantities and units
  • Physical quantities and units
  • Scalars and vectors
  • Resolving vectors
  • Vector addition problems
  • Vectors and scalars
  • Vectors question 1
  • Vectors question 2
  • Vectors question 3
  • Vectors question 4
  • Vectors question 5
  • Vectors question 6
  • Vectors question 7
  • Linear motion
  • Derivation of the equations of motion for uniform acceleration
  • Motion graphs
  • Using the equations of motion
  • Measuring g
  • Dynamics
  • Projectiles
  • Projectiles question 1
  • Projectiles question 2
  • Newton's laws of motion
  • Force, mass and acceleration
  • Newton's laws of motion
  • Motion question 1
  • Motion question 2
  • Motion question 3
  • Motion question 4
  • Motion question 5
  • Motion question 6
  • Motion question 7
  • Principle of moments
  • Moments
  • Human forearm
  • Couples
  • Moments question 1
  • Work done, potential and kinetic energy
  • Energy changes
  • Energy question 1
  • Energy question 2
  • Energy question 3
  • Efficiency
  • Deformation of solids
  • Springs
  • Deforming solids
  • Young modulus
  • Materials question 1
  • Materials question 2
  • Electric circuits
  • Circuit symbols
  • Electric current and charge
  • Charge and Current
  • Potential difference and electromotive force
  • E.m.f. and p.d.
  • Resistance, resistivity
  • Superconductivity
  • Resistance
  • Resistivity
  • Resistivity question 1
  • Resistivity question 2
  • EMF and internal resistance
  • Internal resistance question 1
  • Internal resistance question 2
  • Internal resistance question 3
  • Current/voltage characteristics
  • Current and p.d. in series and parallel circuits
  • Direct current circuits
  • Resistors in series and parallel
  • Potential divider
  • Electric circuits question 1
  • Electric circuits question 2
  • Electric circuits question 3
  • Electric circuits question 4
  • Electric circuits question 5
  • Electric circuits question 6
  • Electric circuits question 7
  • Electric circuits question 8
  • Electric circuits question 9
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Vectors
  • Q2 Motion
  • Q3 Moments
  • Q4 Young modulus
  • Q5 Energy
  • Q6 Thermistor
  • Q7 Superconductors
  • Unit 2
  • Waves, photons and medical physics
  • Waves
  • Origin of waves
  • Types of Wave
  • Polarisation of Waves
  • Polarisation question 1
  • Properties of Waves
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Phase difference
  • Refraction
  • Reflection and refraction
  • Total internal reflection
  • Optical fibres
  • Optics question 1
  • Optics question 2
  • Lenses
  • Lenses
  • Superposition and interference
  • Interference
  • Standing and Progressive waves
  • Harmonics and Overtones
  • Experiments with stationary waves
  • Finding the speed of sound
  • Standing waves question 1
  • Waves in Strings
  • Waves in Strings question 1
  • Waves in Strings question 2
  • Waves in Strings question 3
  • Waves in Strings question 4
  • Youngs slits
  • Phase difference and path difference
  • Interference question 1
  • Diffraction
  • Single slit diffraction
  • Diffraction grating
  • Comparing diffraction patterns
  • Diffraction grating question 1
  • Diffraction grating question 2
  • Sound
  • Measuring frequency with an oscilloscope
  • Decibels
  • Imaging techniques
  • Pulse echo
  • Endoscope
  • CT Scan
  • MRI Scan
  • Photon model
  • Photons
  • The photo-electric effect
  • The photo-electric effect question 1
  • Quantum physics
  • Ionisation and excitation
  • Lasers
  • Energy levels question 1
  • Wave-particle duality
  • Wave-particle duality
  • Electron diffraction
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Waves
  • Q2 Imaging
  • Q3 Lenses
  • Q4 Hearing
  • Q5 Standing waves
  • Q6 Two slit interference
  • Q7 Photoelectric effect
  • Q8 Diffraction
  • WJEC A Level Physics
  • Unit 1
  • Motion, energy and charge
  • Basic physics
  • Physical quantities and units
  • Homogeneity
  • Newton's laws of motion
  • Resolving vectors
  • Vector addition problems
  • Vectors and scalars
  • Vectors question 1
  • Vectors question 2
  • Vectors question 3
  • Vectors question 4
  • Vectors question 5
  • Vectors question 6
  • Vectors question 7
  • Equilibrium
  • Moments
  • Human forearm
  • Couples
  • Moments question 1
  • Centre of gravity
  • Stability
  • Free body force diagrams
  • Force, mass and acceleration
  • Density
  • Kinematics
  • Definitions in kinematics
  • Derivation of the equations of motion for uniform acceleration
  • Motion graphs
  • Using the equations of motion
  • Diving
  • Motion with air resistance
  • Non-uniform acceleration
  • Projectiles
  • Projectiles question 1
  • Projectiles question 2
  • Motion question 1
  • Motion question 2
  • Motion question 3
  • Motion question 4
  • Motion question 5
  • Motion question 6
  • Motion question 7
  • Energy concepts
  • Energy changes
  • Energy question 1
  • Energy question 2
  • Energy question 3
  • Power
  • Efficiency
  • Conduction of electricity
  • Circuit symbols
  • Charge
  • Drift velocity
  • Resistance
  • Resistance
  • Current/voltage characteristics
  • Resistivity
  • Resistivity question 1
  • Resistivity question 2
  • Superconductivity
  • Electrical power
  • DC circuits
  • Charge, current, potential difference
  • Current and p.d. in series and parallel circuits
  • Resistors in series and parallel
  • Potential divider
  • Potential dividers to control volume and temperature
  • EMF and internal resistance
  • Internal resistance question 1
  • Internal resistance question 2
  • Internal resistance question 3
  • Electric circuits question 1
  • Electric circuits question 2
  • Electric circuits question 3
  • Electric circuits question 4
  • Electric circuits question 5
  • Electric circuits question 6
  • Electric circuits question 7
  • Electric circuits question 8
  • Electric circuits question 9
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Resistivity
  • Q2 Charge
  • Q3 Internal resistance
  • Q4 Vectors and forces
  • Q5 Terminal velocity
  • Q6 Projectiles
  • Q7 Wind turbines
  • Unit 2
  • Waves and particles
  • Waves
  • Origin of waves
  • Types of Wave
  • Polarisation of Waves
  • Polarisation question 1
  • Properties of Waves
  • Single slit diffraction
  • Interference
  • Youngs slits
  • Diffraction grating
  • Comparing diffraction patterns
  • Diffraction grating question 1
  • Diffraction grating question 2
  • Phase difference
  • Phase difference and path difference
  • Interference question 1
  • Standing and Progressive waves
  • Harmonics and Overtones
  • Experiments with stationary waves
  • Finding the speed of sound
  • Standing waves question 1
  • Waves in Strings
  • Waves in Strings question 1
  • Waves in Strings question 2
  • Waves in Strings question 3
  • Waves in Strings question 4
  • Refraction of light
  • Reflection and refraction
  • Total internal reflection
  • Optical fibres
  • Optics question 1
  • Optics question 2
  • Photons
  • Photons
  • The photo-electric effect
  • The photo-electric effect question 1
  • X-rays
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Ionisation and excitation
  • Emission and absorption spectra
  • Lasers
  • Energy levels question 1
  • Matter, forces and the Universe
  • Constituents of the atom
  • Quarks and leptons
  • Hadrons
  • Quarks and antiquarks
  • Conservation laws
  • Discovery of quarks
  • Particles question 1
  • Forces of nature
  • Using radiation to investigate stars
  • Black body radiation and Wien's law
  • The power of stars
  • Inverse square law
  • Emission and absorption spectra
  • Star properties from spectra
  • Proton-proton chain
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Light
  • Q2 Waves
  • Q3 Lasers
  • Q4 Particles
  • Q5 Stationary waves
  • Q6 Star spectra
  • Q7 Photoelectric effect
  • AQA A Level Chemistry
  • Unit 1
  • Atomic Structure
  • Fundamental Particles
  • Introduction to Fundamental Particles
  • Basic Atomic Structure
  • The Nucleus, Atomic Number and Relative Atomic Mass
  • Isotopes
  • Isotopes Examples
  • Ions
  • The Mass Spectrometer
  • Electronic Configuration
  • Evidence for Shells and Orbitals Part 1
  • Evidence for Shells and Orbitals Part 2
  • The Electron Structure for the First 36 Elements
  • More on the Order of Filling Shells
  • Shapes of s and p Orbitals
  • Successive Ionisation Energies
  • Amount of Substance
  • Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass
  • Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass
  • The Mole and Avogadro's Constant
  • The Mole and Avogadro's Constant
  • The Ideal Gas Equation
  • The Ideal Gas Equation Intro
  • The Ideal Gas Equation Examples
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae
  • Balanced Equations
  • The Idea of a Balanced Equation
  • Balanced Equation Examples
  • Bonding
  • Types of Bond
  • Types of Bond Intro
  • Ionic Bonds
  • Covalent Bonds
  • Dative Bonds
  • Metallic Bonds
  • Dipoles and Intermolecular Forces
  • Bond Polarity
  • Intermolecular Forces
  • States of Matter
  • Solid, Liquid and Gas
  • Shapes of Simple Molecules
  • Introduction to Shapes of Molecules
  • 2 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 3 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 4 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 5 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 6 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • Periodicity
  • Periodic Table, Blocks
  • Splitting the Periodic Table into Blocks
  • Period 3 Elements
  • Atomic Radii
  • First Ionisation and Electronegativity
  • Electrical Conductivity
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Nomenclature
  • The Alkanes
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae - 2
  • Structural and Displayed Formulae
  • Homologous Series and Functional Groups
  • The Alkenes
  • Haloalkanes
  • Isomerism
  • Structural Isomers - Introduction
  • Chain Isomers
  • Position Isomers
  • Functional Group Isomers
  • Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil
  • Saturated Hydrocarbons
  • Distillation in a Fractionating Column
  • Cracking Alkanes
  • Cracking Alkanes
  • Economic Considerations
  • Combustion
  • Combustion of Alkanes
  • Unit 2
  • Energetics
  • Enthalpy Change
  • Enthalpy Change
  • Enthalpy of Combustion and Formation
  • Calorimetry
  • Calorimetry
  • Calorimetry Example 1
  • Calorimetry Example 2
  • Calorimetry Example 3
  • Hess's Law
  • Hess's Law of Constant Heat Summation
  • Hess's Law Example 1
  • Hess's Law Example 2
  • Hess's Law Example 3
  • Bond Enthalpy
  • The Meaning of Bond Enthalpy
  • Bond Enthalpy Example 1
  • Bond Enthalpy Example 2
  • Kinetics
  • Collision Theory
  • Introduction to Collision Theory
  • Factors that Affect Reaction Rate
  • Maxwell-Boltzmann
  • The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
  • Maxwell-Boltzmann and Temperature Change
  • Catalysts
  • Catalysts
  • More on Catalysts
  • Examples of Catalysts
  • Zeolites
  • CFCs and the Environment
  • Equilibrium
  • Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium
  • Reversible Reactions
  • Conditions for Equilibrium
  • Microscopic Properties
  • The Effect of Changing Conditions
  • Industrial Considerations
  • Industrial Considerations
  • Ammonia Production
  • Ethanol Production
  • Methanol Production
  • Industrial Considerations Summary
  • Redox
  • Redox Reactions
  • Definitions
  • Half Equations
  • Half Equations 1
  • Half Equations 2
  • Oxidation States
  • Definitions and Rules
  • Oxidation States in Simple Compounds
  • Oxidation States in Ions and More Complex Compounds
  • Using Oxidation States in Redox Reactions - Intro
  • Using Oxidation States in Redox Reactions - More Complex Examples
  • Using Oxidation States in Redox Reactions - Simple Examples
  • Balancing Redox Equations
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 1
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 2
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 3
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 4
  • The Halogens
  • Introduction
  • Introducing the Halogens
  • Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties Intro
  • Atomic Radii
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • Electronegativity
  • Bond Energy
  • Chemical Properties
  • Introduction to Chemical Properties
  • Halogens as Oxidising Agents
  • Displacement Reactions
  • Reactions of the Halide Ions
  • Fluoride and Chloride Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Iodide Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Bromide Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Testing For Halide Ions
  • Testing For Halide Ions
  • Uses of Chlorine
  • Uses of Chlorine
  • Periodicity
  • Group 2 Elements
  • Atomic Radii
  • First Ionisation and Electronegativity
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • Reaction with Water
  • Solubility of Hydroxide
  • Solubility of Sulphate
  • Tests for Sulphate Ions
  • Extraction of Metals
  • Metals
  • Introduction
  • Ore
  • Introduction to Ore
  • Converting Sulphides to Oxides
  • Iron
  • Extraction in the Blast Furnace
  • Uses of Iron
  • Other Relatively Unreactive Metals
  • Manganese and Copper
  • Aluminium
  • Extraction of Aluminium
  • Some Other Metals
  • Titanium
  • Tungsten
  • Haloalkanes
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Haloalkanes
  • Naming Haloalkanes
  • Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties of Haloalkanes
  • Reactivity of C - X Bond
  • Reactivity of C - X Bond
  • Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Nucleophilic Substitution 1 - Nucleophiles
  • The Mechanism for Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Reaction with Hydroxide Ions
  • Reaction with Cyanide Ions
  • Reaction with Ammonia
  • Uses of Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Elimination Reactions
  • Introduction to Elimination
  • Laboratory Experiment to Produce Ethene
  • The Mechanism of Elimination
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Formation of Haloalkanes
  • Introduction to Formation
  • Initiation
  • Propagation
  • Termination
  • Alkenes
  • Introduction to Alkenes
  • The Alkenes
  • The Shape of Molecules
  • The pi Orbital
  • Isomers
  • Introduction - Chain Isomers
  • Position Isomers
  • Geometrical Isomers
  • Advantages of E-Z Notation
  • Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties
  • Reactivity
  • Reactivity
  • Combustion
  • Addition Reactions
  • Addition Reactions Intro
  • Reaction with Hydrogen Halides
  • Asymmetric Situations
  • Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Carbocations
  • Reaction with Halogens
  • Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Polymers
  • Polythene
  • Polypropylene
  • Summary of Common Polymers
  • Environmental Issues
  • Alcohols
  • Introduction
  • Ethanol
  • General Formula
  • Naming Alcohols
  • Classification
  • Shape of the Ethanol Molecule
  • Physical properties
  • Physical Properties
  • Production and Use
  • Making Ethanol from Crude Oil
  • Making Ethanol by Fermentation
  • Carbon Neutrality
  • Reactions
  • Combustion
  • Oxidation of Primary Alcohols
  • Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols
  • Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Tests for Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Elimination Reactions
  • Analytical Techniques
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
  • Infra-Red Spectrometry
  • Infra-Red Spectrometry
  • Infra-Red Spectrographs
  • Edexcel A Level Chemistry
  • Unit 1
  • Atomic Structure
  • Fundamental Particles
  • Introduction to Fundamental Particles
  • Basic Atomic Structure
  • The Nucleus, Atomic Number and Relative Atomic Mass
  • Isotopes
  • Isotopes Examples
  • Ions
  • The Mass Spectrometer
  • Electronic Configuration
  • Evidence for Shells and Orbitals Part 1
  • Evidence for Shells and Orbitals Part 2
  • The Electron Structure for the First 36 Elements
  • More on the Order of Filling Shells
  • Shapes of s and p Orbitals
  • Successive Ionisation Energies
  • Amount of Substance
  • Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass
  • Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass
  • The Mole and Avogadro's Constant
  • The Mole and Avogadro's Constant
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae
  • Balanced Equations
  • The Idea of a Balanced Equation
  • Balanced Equation Examples
  • Energetics
  • Enthalpy Change
  • Enthalpy Change
  • Enthalpy of Combustion and Formation
  • Calorimetry
  • Calorimetry
  • Calorimetry Example 1
  • Calorimetry Example 2
  • Calorimetry Example 3
  • Hess's Law
  • Hess's Law of Constant Heat Summation
  • Hess's Law Example 1
  • Hess's Law Example 2
  • Hess's Law Example 3
  • Bond Enthalpy
  • The Meaning of Bond Enthalpy
  • Bond Enthalpy Example 1
  • Bond Enthalpy Example 2
  • Periodicity
  • Periodic Table, Blocks
  • Splitting the Periodic Table into Blocks
  • Period 3 Elements
  • Atomic Radii
  • First Ionisation and Electronegativity
  • Electrical Conductivity
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • Trends in Period 2
  • Trends in Period 2 Elements
  • Bonding
  • Types of Bond
  • Types of Bond Intro
  • Ionic Bonds
  • Covalent Bonds
  • Dative Bonds
  • Metallic Bonds
  • Giant Covalent Structures
  • Analytical Techniques
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
  • Ions
  • Ions and the Born-Haber Cycle
  • Ionic Radii
  • Evidence for the Existence of Ions
  • The Born-Haber Cycle
  • Why Some Compounds Do Not Exist
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Nomenclature
  • The Alkanes
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae - 2
  • Structural and Displayed Formulae
  • Homologous Series and Functional Groups
  • The Alkenes
  • Haloalkanes
  • Isomerism
  • Structural Isomers - Introduction
  • Chain Isomers
  • Position Isomers
  • Functional Group Isomers
  • Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil
  • Saturated Hydrocarbons
  • Distillation in a Fractionating Column
  • Cracking Alkanes
  • Cracking Alkanes
  • Economic Considerations
  • Combustion
  • Combustion of Alkanes
  • Processes
  • Atom Economy and Percentage Yield
  • Theoretical Yield
  • Atom Economy
  • Addition Reactions
  • Substitution Reactions
  • Atom Economy v Percentage Yield
  • Environmental Considerations
  • Fuels and Climate Change
  • Alkanes
  • Using Alkanes as Fuels
  • Climate Change and Sustainability
  • Causes of Climate Change and The Future
  • Alkenes
  • Introduction to Alkenes
  • The Alkenes
  • The Shape of Molecules
  • The pi Orbital
  • Isomers
  • Introduction - Chain Isomers
  • Position Isomers
  • Geometrical Isomers
  • Advantages of E-Z Notation
  • Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties
  • Reactivity
  • Reactivity
  • Combustion
  • Addition Reactions
  • Addition Reactions Intro
  • Reaction with Hydrogen Halides
  • Asymmetric Situations
  • Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Carbocations
  • Reaction with Halogens
  • Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Polymers
  • Polythene
  • Polypropylene
  • Summary of Common Polymers
  • Environmental Issues
  • Confirming Equations
  • Using Experimental Data
  • Using Experimental Data to Confirm Equations
  • Salts
  • Making Salts
  • Salts
  • Hydrated and Anhydrous Salts
  • Double Salts
  • Preparing Salts
  • Percentage Yield
  • Unit 2
  • Bonding
  • Dipoles and Intermolecular Forces
  • Bond Polarity
  • Intermolecular Forces
  • States of Matter
  • Solid, Liquid and Gas
  • Shapes of Simple Molecules
  • Introduction to Shapes of Molecules
  • 2 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 3 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 4 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 5 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 6 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • Allotropes of Carbon
  • Redox
  • Redox Reactions
  • Definitions
  • Half Equations
  • Half Equations 1
  • Half Equations 2
  • Oxidation States
  • Definitions and Rules
  • Oxidation States in Simple Compounds
  • Oxidation States in Ions and More Complex Compounds
  • Using Oxidation States in Redox Reactions - Intro
  • Using Oxidation States in Redox Reactions - More Complex Examples
  • Using Oxidation States in Redox Reactions - Simple Examples
  • Balancing Redox Equations
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 1
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 2
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 3
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 4
  • Periodicity
  • Group 2 Elements
  • Atomic Radii
  • First Ionisation and Electronegativity
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • Reaction with Water
  • Solubility of Hydroxide
  • Solubility of Sulphate
  • Tests for Sulphate Ions
  • Group 1 and 2 Compounds
  • Thermal Stability
  • Thermal Stability of Carbonates and Nitrates
  • Testing Thermal Stability
  • Distinctive Flame Colours
  • The Halogens
  • Introduction
  • Introducing the Halogens
  • Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties Intro
  • Atomic Radii
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • Electronegativity
  • Bond Energy
  • Chemical Properties
  • Introduction to Chemical Properties
  • Halogens as Oxidising Agents
  • Displacement Reactions
  • Reactions of the Halide Ions
  • Fluoride and Chloride Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Iodide Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Bromide Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Testing For Halide Ions
  • Testing For Halide Ions
  • Uses of Chlorine
  • Uses of Chlorine
  • Titrations
  • Indicators
  • Use of Indicators
  • Concentration
  • Concentration of Solutions
  • Performing Titrations
  • Performing Acid-Base Titrations
  • Titration Calculations
  • Titration Calculations Example 1
  • Titration Calculations Example 2
  • Sodium Thiosulphate Titration
  • Performing the Titration
  • Calculations
  • General Procedures
  • How to be Accurate
  • Kinetics
  • Collision Theory
  • Introduction to Collision Theory
  • Factors that Affect Reaction Rate
  • Maxwell-Boltzmann
  • The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
  • Maxwell-Boltzmann and Temperature Change
  • Catalysts
  • Catalysts
  • More on Catalysts
  • Examples of Catalysts
  • Zeolites
  • CFCs and the Environment
  • Equilibrium
  • Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium
  • Reversible Reactions
  • Conditions for Equilibrium
  • Microscopic Properties
  • The Effect of Changing Conditions
  • Industrial Considerations
  • Industrial Considerations
  • Ammonia Production
  • Ethanol Production
  • Methanol Production
  • Industrial Considerations Summary
  • Alcohols
  • Introduction
  • Ethanol
  • General Formula
  • Naming Alcohols
  • Classification
  • Shape of the Ethanol Molecule
  • Physical properties
  • Physical Properties
  • Production and Use
  • Making Ethanol from Crude Oil
  • Making Ethanol by Fermentation
  • Carbon Neutrality
  • Reactions
  • Combustion
  • Oxidation of Primary Alcohols
  • Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols
  • Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Tests for Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Elimination Reactions
  • Haloalkanes
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Haloalkanes
  • Naming Haloalkanes
  • Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties of Haloalkanes
  • Reactivity of C - X Bond
  • Reactivity of C - X Bond
  • Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Nucleophilic Substitution 1 - Nucleophiles
  • The Mechanism for Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Reaction with Hydroxide Ions
  • Reaction with Cyanide Ions
  • Reaction with Ammonia
  • Uses of Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Elimination Reactions
  • Introduction to Elimination
  • Laboratory Experiment to Produce Ethene
  • The Mechanism of Elimination
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Formation of Haloalkanes
  • Introduction to Formation
  • Initiation
  • Propagation
  • Termination
  • Types of Reaction
  • A Brief Summary
  • The Types of Reaction We Have Seen
  • Types of Reagent
  • Reagents and the Type of Reaction
  • Molecules Breaking
  • Homolytic and Heterolytic Fission
  • Reaction Rate Experiments
  • Catalysts
  • Catalysts and How They Work
  • Monitoring Reaction Rates
  • Measuring the Rate of a Reaction
  • Chemistry and the Environment
  • Green Chemistry
  • Sustainability
  • Unexpected Consequences
  • Catalysts and High Atom Economies
  • International Cooperation
  • The Greenhouse Effect
  • The Greenhouse Effect
  • Global Warming
  • Climate Change v Anthropogenic Change
  • Carbon Footprint and Carbon Neutral
  • Action Against Global warming
  • The Ozone Layer and Air Pollution
  • The Ozone Layer
  • The Effect of CFCs and Nitrogen Oxides
  • Pollutants from Fuels
  • Analytical Techniques
  • Infra-Red Spectrometry
  • Infra-Red Spectrometry
  • Infra-Red Spectrographs
  • OCR A Level Chemistry
  • Unit 1
  • Atomic Structure
  • Fundamental Particles
  • Introduction to Fundamental Particles
  • Basic Atomic Structure
  • The Nucleus, Atomic Number and Relative Atomic Mass
  • Isotopes
  • Isotopes Examples
  • Ions
  • The Mass Spectrometer
  • Electronic Configuration
  • Evidence for Shells and Orbitals Part 1
  • Evidence for Shells and Orbitals Part 2
  • The Electron Structure for the First 36 Elements
  • More on the Order of Filling Shells
  • Shapes of s and p Orbitals
  • Successive Ionisation Energies
  • Amount of Substance
  • Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass
  • Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass
  • The Mole and Avogadro's Constant
  • The Mole and Avogadro's Constant
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae
  • Balanced Equations
  • The Idea of a Balanced Equation
  • Balanced Equation Examples
  • Atomic Models
  • A Historical View
  • The Development of Structure Since Ancient Greece
  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Acids
  • What is an Acid?
  • Bases
  • What is a Base?
  • Salts
  • Salts, and Water of Crystallisation
  • Periodicity
  • Trends in Period 2
  • Trends in Period 2 Elements
  • Titrations
  • Indicators
  • Use of Indicators
  • Concentration
  • Concentration of Solutions
  • Performing Titrations
  • Performing Acid-Base Titrations
  • Titration Calculations
  • Titration Calculations Example 1
  • Titration Calculations Example 2
  • Redox
  • Redox Reactions
  • Definitions
  • Half Equations
  • Half Equations 1
  • Half Equations 2
  • Oxidation States
  • Definitions and Rules
  • Oxidation States in Simple Compounds
  • Oxidation States in Ions and More Complex Compounds
  • Using Oxidation States in Redox Reactions - Intro
  • Using Oxidation States in Redox Reactions - More Complex Examples
  • Using Oxidation States in Redox Reactions - Simple Examples
  • Balancing Redox Equations
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 1
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 2
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 3
  • Balancing Redox Equations Example 4
  • Bonding
  • Types of Bond
  • Types of Bond Intro
  • Ionic Bonds
  • Covalent Bonds
  • Dative Bonds
  • Metallic Bonds
  • Giant Covalent Structures
  • Dipoles and Intermolecular Forces
  • Bond Polarity
  • Intermolecular Forces
  • States of Matter
  • Solid, Liquid and Gas
  • Shapes of Simple Molecules
  • Introduction to Shapes of Molecules
  • 2 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 3 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 4 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 5 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 6 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • Periodic Table, Blocks
  • Splitting the Periodic Table into Blocks
  • Period 3 Elements
  • Atomic Radii
  • First Ionisation and Electronegativity
  • Electrical Conductivity
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • The Halogens
  • Introduction
  • Introducing the Halogens
  • Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties Intro
  • Atomic Radii
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • Electronegativity
  • Bond Energy
  • Chemical Properties
  • Introduction to Chemical Properties
  • Halogens as Oxidising Agents
  • Displacement Reactions
  • Reactions of the Halide Ions
  • Fluoride and Chloride Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Iodide Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Bromide Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Testing For Halide Ions
  • Testing For Halide Ions
  • Uses of Chlorine
  • Uses of Chlorine
  • Group 2 Elements
  • Atomic Radii
  • First Ionisation and Electronegativity
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • Reaction with Water
  • Solubility of Hydroxide
  • Solubility of Sulphate
  • Tests for Sulphate Ions
  • Unit 2
  • Energetics
  • Enthalpy Change
  • Enthalpy Change
  • Enthalpy of Combustion and Formation
  • Calorimetry
  • Calorimetry
  • Calorimetry Example 1
  • Calorimetry Example 2
  • Calorimetry Example 3
  • Hess's Law
  • Hess's Law of Constant Heat Summation
  • Hess's Law Example 1
  • Hess's Law Example 2
  • Hess's Law Example 3
  • Bond Enthalpy
  • The Meaning of Bond Enthalpy
  • Bond Enthalpy Example 1
  • Bond Enthalpy Example 2
  • Kinetics
  • Collision Theory
  • Introduction to Collision Theory
  • Factors that Affect Reaction Rate
  • Maxwell-Boltzmann
  • The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
  • Maxwell-Boltzmann and Temperature Change
  • Catalysts
  • Catalysts
  • More on Catalysts
  • Examples of Catalysts
  • Zeolites
  • CFCs and the Environment
  • Equilibrium
  • Reversible Reactions and Equilibrium
  • Reversible Reactions
  • Conditions for Equilibrium
  • Microscopic Properties
  • The Effect of Changing Conditions
  • Industrial Considerations
  • Industrial Considerations
  • Ammonia Production
  • Ethanol Production
  • Methanol Production
  • Industrial Considerations Summary
  • Processes
  • Atom Economy and Percentage Yield
  • Theoretical Yield
  • Atom Economy
  • Addition Reactions
  • Substitution Reactions
  • Atom Economy v Percentage Yield
  • Environmental Considerations
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Nomenclature
  • The Alkanes
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae - 2
  • Structural and Displayed Formulae
  • Homologous Series and Functional Groups
  • The Alkenes
  • Haloalkanes
  • Isomerism
  • Structural Isomers - Introduction
  • Chain Isomers
  • Position Isomers
  • Functional Group Isomers
  • Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil
  • Saturated Hydrocarbons
  • Distillation in a Fractionating Column
  • Cracking Alkanes
  • Cracking Alkanes
  • Economic Considerations
  • Combustion
  • Combustion of Alkanes
  • Alkenes
  • Introduction to Alkenes
  • The Alkenes
  • The Shape of Molecules
  • The pi Orbital
  • Isomers
  • Introduction - Chain Isomers
  • Position Isomers
  • Geometrical Isomers
  • Advantages of E-Z Notation
  • Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties
  • Reactivity
  • Reactivity
  • Combustion
  • Addition Reactions
  • Addition Reactions Intro
  • Reaction with Hydrogen Halides
  • Asymmetric Situations
  • Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Carbocations
  • Reaction with Halogens
  • Reaction with Conc. Sulphuric Acid
  • Polymers
  • Polythene
  • Polypropylene
  • Summary of Common Polymers
  • Environmental Issues
  • Haloalkanes
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Haloalkanes
  • Naming Haloalkanes
  • Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties of Haloalkanes
  • Reactivity of C - X Bond
  • Reactivity of C - X Bond
  • Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Nucleophilic Substitution 1 - Nucleophiles
  • The Mechanism for Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Reaction with Hydroxide Ions
  • Reaction with Cyanide Ions
  • Reaction with Ammonia
  • Uses of Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Elimination Reactions
  • Introduction to Elimination
  • Laboratory Experiment to Produce Ethene
  • The Mechanism of Elimination
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Formation of Haloalkanes
  • Introduction to Formation
  • Initiation
  • Propagation
  • Termination
  • Alcohols
  • Introduction
  • Ethanol
  • General Formula
  • Naming Alcohols
  • Classification
  • Shape of the Ethanol Molecule
  • Physical properties
  • Physical Properties
  • Production and Use
  • Making Ethanol from Crude Oil
  • Making Ethanol by Fermentation
  • Carbon Neutrality
  • Reactions
  • Combustion
  • Oxidation of Primary Alcohols
  • Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols
  • Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Tests for Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Elimination Reactions
  • Analytical Techniques
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
  • Infra-Red Spectrometry
  • Infra-Red Spectrometry
  • Infra-Red Spectrographs
  • Chemistry and the Environment
  • Green Chemistry
  • Sustainability
  • Unexpected Consequences
  • Catalysts and High Atom Economies
  • International Cooperation
  • The Greenhouse Effect
  • The Greenhouse Effect
  • Global Warming
  • Climate Change v Anthropogenic Change
  • Carbon Footprint and Carbon Neutral
  • Action Against Global warming
  • The Ozone Layer and Air Pollution
  • The Ozone Layer
  • The Effect of CFCs and Nitrogen Oxides
  • Pollutants from Fuels
  • Water Treatment
  • Water Treatment
  • Chlorination of Water
  • Bleach
  • 2. What goes around comes around
  • A. Back and forth and up and down
  • Simple harmonic motion
  • Mass spring system
  • Simple pendulum
  • Energy in SHM
  • Damping
  • Resonance
  • Simple harmonic motion question 1
  • Simple harmonic motion question 2
  • Simple harmonic motion question 3
  • Simple harmonic motion question 4
  • Simple harmonic motion question 5
  • B. Round and round
  • The rotor
  • Big wheel
  • The orbiter
  • C. Spinning faster and faster
  • Angular momentum
  • Conservation of angular momentum
  • Rotational kinetic energy
  • Angular momentum question 1
  • Angular momentum question 2
  • Angular momentum question 3
  • 3. Imaging the invisible
  • A. Gravity surveys
  • Gravitational field strength
  • Gravity surveys
  • Gravity surveys example 1
  • B. Magnetic surveys
  • Magnetic flux density
  • Magnetic fields due to electrical current
  • Magnetic flux
  • Induced EMF
  • Eddy currents
  • Measuring flux density
  • Variations in the Earth's magnetic field
  • Proton magnetometer
  • Metal detector
  • Magnetism question 1
  • Magnetism question 2
  • Magnetism question 3
  • Magnetism question 4
  • Magnetism question 5
  • C. Resistivity and seismic surveys
  • resistivity surveys
  • Seismic surveys
  • Geophone
  • D. Medical diagnosis without surgery
  • X-rays
  • Pulse echo
  • MRI scan
  • Endoscopes
  • Charge coupled device
  • Unit 5
  • 1. Matter under the microscope
  • A. Power from engines
  • Pressure
  • Kinetic theory of gases
  • Kinetic energy of gas molecules
  • Avogadro constant
  • Absolute zero
  • Gas equations
  • Gases, pistons and engines
  • Gases question 1
  • Gases question 2
  • Gases question 3
  • B. Heating, cooling and working
  • Specific heat capacity
  • Specific heat capacity question 1
  • Specific heat capacity question 2
  • Power of heat transfer
  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics
  • Work done and gases
  • Four stroke engine
  • Work done in engine cycles
  • Efficiency of engines
  • Engines question 1
  • Engines question 2
  • C. Arrow of time
  • Entropy
  • Entropy question 1
  • Entropy question 2
  • Examination Style Questions
  • Unit 4
  • 1. Further Mechanics
  • Momentum concepts
  • Momentum and impulse
  • Momentum, impulse and Newton's third law
  • Momentum question 1
  • Momentum question 2
  • Elastic and inelastic collisions
  • Circular motion
  • Centripetal force
  • Circular motion question 1
  • Circular motion question 2
  • Circular motion question 3
  • Circular motion question 4
  • Circular motion question 5
  • Simple harmonic motion
  • Simple harmonic motion
  • Simple harmonic motion question 1
  • Simple harmonic motion question 2
  • Simple harmonic motion question 3
  • Simple harmonic motion question 4
  • Simple harmonic motion question 5
  • Simple harmonic systems
  • Mass spring system
  • Simple pendulum
  • Energy in SHM
  • Forced vibrations and resonance
  • Damping
  • Resonance
  • 2. Gravitation
  • Newton's law
  • Newton's law of gravitation
  • Gravitation question 1
  • Gravitation question 2
  • Gravitational field strength
  • Gravitational field strength
  • Gravitational potential
  • Gravitational field lines and equipotential surfaces
  • Changes in gravitational potential energy
  • Gravitational potential
  • Gravitational potential question 1
  • Orbits of planets and satellites
  • Orbits
  • Orbits question 1
  • Orbits question 2
  • 3. Electric fields
  • Coulomb's law
  • Coulomb's Law
  • Electric field strength
  • Electric fields
  • Electric field around a point charge
  • Charged particles in electric fields
  • 5. Magnetic fields
  • Magnetic flux density
  • Magnetic flux density
  • Measuring flux density
  • Moving charges in a magnetic field
  • Charged particles in magnetic fields
  • Cyclotron
  • Synchrotron
  • Charged particles question 1
  • Charged particles question 2
  • Charged particles question 3
  • Charged particles question 4
  • Magnetic flux and flux linkage
  • Magnetic flux
  • Electromagnetic induction
  • Induced EMF
  • Eddy currents
  • Magnetism question 1
  • Magnetism question 2
  • Magnetism question 3
  • Magnetism question 4
  • Magnetism question 5
  • Unit 5
  • 1. Radioactivity
  • Evidence for the nucleus
  • Nuclear atom
  • 3. Thermal Physics
  • Thermal energy
  • Specific heat capacity
  • Specific heat capacity question 1
  • Specific heat capacity question 2
  • Ideal gases
  • Ideal gas equation
  • Gas equations
  • Absolute zero
  • Avogadro constant
  • Molecular kinetic theory model
  • Kinetic theory of gases
  • Kinetic energy of gas molecules
  • Gases question 1
  • Gases question 2
  • Gases question 3
  • Unit 5A
  • Astrophysics
  • Lenses and optical instruments
  • Lenses
  • Charge coupled device
  • Charge coupled device
  • Pixels and resolution
  • Classification of stars
  • Star properties from spectra
  • Black body radiation and Wien's law
  • The power of stars
  • Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
  • Life of a star
  • Cosmology
  • Doppler effect
  • Doppler effect question 1
  • Doppler effect question 2
  • Hubble's law
  • Hubble's law question 1
  • Quasars
  • Unit 5B
  • Medical Physics
  • Physics of the eye
  • Lenses
  • Physics of the ear
  • Decibels
  • Non-ionising imaging
  • Pulse echo
  • Endoscopes
  • MRI scan
  • X-ray imaging
  • X-rays
  • CT Scan
  • Unit 5C
  • Applied Physics
  • Rotational dynamics
  • Angular momentum
  • Conservation of angular momentum
  • Rotational kinetic energy
  • Angular momentum question 1
  • Angular momentum question 2
  • Angular momentum question 3
  • Thermodynamics and engines
  • Work done and gases
  • Four stroke engine
  • Work done in engine cycles
  • Efficiency of engines
  • Engines question 1
  • Unit 5D
  • Applied Physics
  • Thermodynamics and engines
  • Engines question 2
  • Turning points in Physics
  • The discovery of the electron
  • Discovering electrons
  • Stoke's law and terminal velocity
  • Stoke's law question 1
  • Special relativity
  • Relativity
  • Unit 4
  • 1. Newton's laws and momentum
  • Newton's laws of motion
  • Newton's laws of motion
  • Unit 4
  • 1. Newton's laws and momentum
  • Newton's laws of motion
  • Momentum and impulse
  • Momentum, impulse and Newton's third law
  • Momentum question 1
  • Momentum question 2
  • Collisions
  • Elastic and inelastic collisions
  • 2. Circular motion and oscillations
  • Circular motion
  • Angular velocity
  • Centripetal force
  • Circular motion question 1
  • Circular motion question 2
  • Circular motion question 3
  • Circular motion question 4
  • Circular motion question 5
  • Gravitational fields
  • Newton's law of gravitation
  • Gravitation question 1
  • Gravitation question 2
  • Orbits
  • Orbits question 1
  • Orbits question 2
  • Simple harmonic oscillations
  • Simple harmonic motion
  • Mass spring system
  • Simple pendulum
  • Energy in SHM
  • Damping
  • Resonance
  • Simple harmonic motion question 1
  • Simple harmonic motion question 2
  • Simple harmonic motion question 3
  • Simple harmonic motion question 4
  • Simple harmonic motion question 5
  • 3. Thermal Physics
  • Temperature
  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics
  • Absolute zero
  • Thermal properties of materials
  • Specific heat capacity
  • Specific heat capacity question 1
  • Specific heat capacity question 2
  • Ideal gases
  • Ideal gas equation
  • Kinetic theory of gases
  • Kinetic energy of gas molecules
  • Avogadro constant
  • Gas equations
  • Gases question 1
  • Gases question 2
  • Gases question 3
  • Unit 5
  • 1. Electric and magnetic fields
  • Electric fields
  • Electric fields
  • Electric field around a point charge
  • Coulomb's Law
  • Magnetic fields
  • Magnetic flux density
  • Magnetic fields due to electrical current
  • Measuring flux density
  • Magnetism question 1
  • Magnetism question 2
  • Magnetism question 3
  • Magnetism question 4
  • Magnetism question 5
  • Charged particles in electric fields
  • Charged particles in magnetic fields
  • Charged particles question 1
  • Charged particles question 2
  • Charged particles question 3
  • Charged particles question 4
  • Mass spectrometer
  • Mass spectrometer question 1
  • Electromagnetism
  • Magnetic flux
  • Induced EMF
  • Eddy currents
  • 3. Nuclear physics
  • The nuclear atom
  • Nuclear atom
  • Nuclear changes in radioactive decay
  • Fundamental particles
  • Evidence of neutrinos
  • Quarks and leptons
  • Hadrons
  • Discovery of quarks
  • Particles question 1
  • Particles question 2
  • Particles question 3
  • Particles question 4
  • 4. Medical imaging
  • X-Rays
  • X-rays
  • CT Scan
  • Diagnosis methods in medicine
  • MRI scan
  • Ultrasound
  • Pulse echo
  • 5. Modelling the Universe
  • Structure of the Universe
  • Life of a star
  • Doppler effect
  • Doppler effect question 1
  • Doppler effect question 2
  • Hubble's law
  • Hubble's law question 1
  • 1. Models and rules
  • Creating models
  • Simple harmonic motion
  • Mass spring system
  • Simple pendulum
  • Energy in SHM
  • Damping
  • Resonance
  • Simple harmonic motion question 1
  • Simple harmonic motion question 2
  • Simple harmonic motion question 3
  • Simple harmonic motion question 4
  • Simple harmonic motion question 5
  • Out into space
  • Momentum, impulse and Newton's third law
  • Momentum question 1
  • Momentum question 2
  • Newton's law of gravitation
  • Gravitation question 1
  • Gravitation question 2
  • Gravitational field lines and equipotential surfaces
  • Changes in gravitational potential energy
  • Gravitational potential
  • Gravitational potential question 1
  • Angular velocity
  • Centripetal force
  • Circular motion question 1
  • Circular motion question 2
  • Circular motion question 3
  • Circular motion question 4
  • Circular motion question 5
  • Orbits
  • Orbits question 1
  • Orbits question 2
  • Our place in the Universe
  • Relativity
  • Doppler effect
  • Doppler effect question 1
  • Doppler effect question 2
  • Hubble's law
  • Hubble's law question 1
  • Big bang
  • 2. Matter in extremes
  • Matter very simple
  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics
  • Ideal gas equation
  • Kinetic theory of gases
  • Kinetic energy of gas molecules
  • Avogadro constant
  • Absolute zero
  • Gas equations
  • Gases question 1
  • Gases question 2
  • Gases question 3
  • Specific heat capacity
  • Specific heat capacity question 1
  • Specific heat capacity question 2
  • Unit 5
  • 1. Fields
  • Electromagnetic machines
  • Magnetic flux density
  • Magnetic fields due to electrical current
  • Magnetic flux
  • Induced EMF
  • Eddy currents
  • Measuring flux density
  • Charge and field
  • Electric fields
  • Electric field around a point charge
  • Coulomb's Law
  • Magnetism question 1
  • Magnetism question 2
  • Magnetism question 3
  • Magnetism question 4
  • Magnetism question 5
  • Charged particles in electric fields
  • Charged particles in magnetic fields
  • Charged particles question 1
  • Charged particles question 2
  • Charged particles question 3
  • Charged particles question 4
  • 2. Fundamental particles
  • Probing deep into matter
  • Electron gun
  • Linear accelerator
  • Cyclotron
  • Synchrotron
  • Large hadron collider
  • Nuclear atom
  • Ionisation and excitation
  • Energy levels question 1
  • Unit 4
  • Physics on the move
  • Further mechanics
  • Momentum and impulse
  • Momentum, impulse and Newton's third law
  • Momentum question 1
  • Momentum question 2
  • Elastic and inelastic collisions
  • Angular velocity
  • Centripetal force
  • Circular motion question 1
  • Circular motion question 2
  • Circular motion question 3
  • Circular motion question 4
  • Circular motion question 5
  • Orbits
  • Orbits question 1
  • Orbits question 2
  • Electric and magnetic fields
  • Electric fields
  • Electric field around a point charge
  • Coulomb's Law
  • Magnetic flux density
  • Magnetic fields due to electrical current
  • Magnetic flux
  • Induced EMF
  • Eddy currents
  • Measuring flux density
  • Magnetism question 1
  • Magnetism question 2
  • Magnetism question 3
  • Magnetism question 4
  • Magnetism question 5
  • Particle Physics
  • Nuclear atom
  • Electron gun
  • Charged particles in electric fields
  • Charged particles in magnetic fields
  • Charged particles question 1
  • Charged particles question 2
  • Charged particles question 3
  • Charged particles question 4
  • Linear accelerator
  • Cyclotron
  • Synchrotron
  • Large hadron collider
  • Quarks and leptons
  • Hadrons
  • Discovery of quarks
  • Particles question 1
  • Particles question 2
  • Particles question 3
  • Particles question 4
  • Unit 5
  • Physics from creation to collapse
  • Thermal energy
  • Specific heat capacity
  • Specific heat capacity question 1
  • Specific heat capacity question 2
  • Ideal gas equation
  • Kinetic theory of gases
  • Kinetic energy of gas molecules
  • Avogadro constant
  • Absolute zero
  • Gas equations
  • Gases question 1
  • Gases question 2
  • Gases question 3
  • Oscillations
  • Simple harmonic motion
  • Mass spring system
  • Simple pendulum
  • Energy in SHM
  • Damping
  • Resonance
  • Simple harmonic motion question 1
  • Simple harmonic motion question 2
  • Simple harmonic motion question 3
  • Simple harmonic motion question 4
  • Simple harmonic motion question 5
  • Astrophysics and cosmology
  • Newton's law of gravitation
  • Gravitation question 1
  • Gravitation question 2
  • The power of stars
  • Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
  • Black body radiation and Wien's law
  • Life of a star
  • Doppler effect
  • Doppler effect question 1
  • Doppler effect question 2
  • A2 1
  • Linear momentum
  • Momentum and impulse
  • Momentum, impulse and Newton's third law
  • Momentum question 1
  • Momentum question 2
  • Elastic and inelastic collisions
  • Thermal physics
  • Ideal gas equation
  • Kinetic theory of gases
  • Kinetic energy of gas molecules
  • Absolute zero
  • Gas equations
  • Gases question 1
  • Gases question 2
  • Gases question 3
  • Specific heat capacity
  • Specific heat capacity question 1
  • Specific heat capacity question 2
  • Uniform circular motion
  • Angular velocity
  • Centripetal force
  • Circular motion question 1
  • Circular motion question 2
  • Circular motion question 3
  • Circular motion question 4
  • Circular motion question 5
  • Simple harmonic motion
  • Simple harmonic motion
  • Mass spring system
  • Simple pendulum
  • Energy in SHM
  • Damping
  • Resonance
  • Simple harmonic motion question 1
  • Simple harmonic motion question 2
  • Simple harmonic motion question 3
  • Simple harmonic motion question 4
  • Simple harmonic motion question 5
  • The nucleus
  • Nuclear atom
  • Nuclear decay
  • Nuclear changes in radioactive decay
  • A2 2
  • Gravitational fields
  • Newton's law of gravitation
  • Gravitation question 1
  • Gravitation question 2
  • The power of stars
  • Orbits
  • Orbits question 1
  • Orbits question 2
  • Electric fields
  • Electric fields
  • Electric field around a point charge
  • Coulomb's Law
  • Magnetic fields
  • Magnetic flux density
  • Magnetic fields due to electrical current
  • Magnetic flux
  • Induced EMF
  • Eddy currents
  • Measuring flux density
  • Magnetism question 1
  • Magnetism question 2
  • Magnetism question 3
  • Magnetism question 4
  • Magnetism question 5
  • Deflection of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields
  • Electron gun
  • Charged particles in electric fields
  • Charged particles in magnetic fields
  • Oscilloscope
  • Charged particles question 1
  • Charged particles question 2
  • Charged particles question 3
  • Charged particles question 4
  • Particle accelerators
  • Linear accelerator
  • Cyclotron
  • Synchrotron
  • Large hadron collider
  • Fundamental particles
  • Forces of nature
  • Quarks and leptons
  • Hadrons
  • Discovery of quarks
  • Particles question 1
  • Particles question 2
  • Particles question 3
  • Particles question 4
  • Unit 4
  • Vibrations
  • Angular velocity
  • Centripetal force
  • Circular motion question 1
  • Circular motion question 2
  • Circular motion question 3
  • Circular motion question 4
  • Circular motion question 5
  • Simple harmonic motion
  • Mass spring system
  • Simple pendulum
  • Energy in SHM
  • Damping
  • Resonance
  • Simple harmonic motion question 1
  • Simple harmonic motion question 2
  • Simple harmonic motion question 3
  • Simple harmonic motion question 4
  • Simple harmonic motion question 5
  • Momentum concepts
  • Momentum and impulse
  • Momentum, impulse and Newton's third law
  • Newton's laws of motion
  • Momentum question 1
  • Momentum question 2
  • Elastic and inelastic collisions
  • Thermal physics
  • Ideal gas equation
  • Kinetic theory of gases
  • Kinetic energy of gas molecules
  • Absolute zero
  • Gas equations
  • Avogadro constant
  • Gases question 1
  • Gases question 2
  • Gases question 3
  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics
  • First law of thermodynamics
  • Work done and gases
  • Specific heat capacity
  • Specific heat capacity question 1
  • Specific heat capacity question 2
  • Electrostatic and gravitational fields of force
  • Electric fields
  • Electric field around a point charge
  • Coulomb's Law
  • Gravitational field lines and equipotential surfaces
  • Changes in gravitational potential energy
  • Gravitational potential
  • Gravitational potential question 1
  • Application to orbits in the Solar System and the wider Universe
  • Orbits
  • Orbits question 1
  • Orbits question 2
  • Doppler effect
  • Doppler effect question 1
  • Doppler effect question 2
  • Unit 5
  • B-fields
  • Magnetic flux density
  • Vibrations
  • SHM and circular motion
  • Magnetic fields due to electrical current
  • Magnetism question 1
  • Magnetism question 2
  • Magnetism question 3
  • Magnetism question 4
  • Magnetism question 5
  • Electron gun
  • Charged particles in electric fields
  • Charged particles in magnetic fields
  • Charged particles question 1
  • Charged particles question 2
  • Charged particles question 3
  • Charged particles question 4
  • Linear accelerator
  • Cyclotron
  • Synchrotron
  • Large hadron collider
  • Electromagnetic induction
  • Magnetic flux
  • Induced EMF
  • Eddy currents
  • Oscillations and fields
  • Option A2/C
  • Materials
  • Springs
  • Deforming solids
  • More on deforming solids
  • Young modulus
  • Materials question 1
  • Materials question 2
  • Structure of solids
  • Option A2/D
  • Biological measurement and medical imaging
  • X-rays
  • CT Scan
  • MRI scan
  • Pulse echo
  • Option A2/E
  • Energy matters
  • Advantages and disadvantages of different energy sources
  • Energy in tidal barrages, HEP and pumped storage systems
  • Wave power
  • Wind power
  • Solar power
  • Electricity generation question 1
  • Electricity generation question 2
  • Electricity generation question 3
  • Black body radiation and Wien's law
  • Work done in engine cycles
  • Efficiency of engines
  • Engines question 1
  • Engines question 2
  • Amount of Substance
  • Amount of Substance Example 1
  • Amount of Substance Example 2
  • Amount of Substance Example 3
  • Amount of Substance Example 4
  • Amount of Substance Example 5
  • Amount of Substance Example 6
  • Amount of Substance Example 7
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 1
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 2
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 3
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 4
  • Fundamental Particles
  • Fundamental Particles Example
  • Intermolecular Forces
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 1
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 2
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 3
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 4
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 5
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 1
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 2
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 3
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 4
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 5
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 6
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 7
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 8
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 9
  • Isotopes
  • Isotopes Example 1
  • Isotopes Example 2
  • Isotopes Example 3
  • Isotopes Example 4
  • Isotopes Example 5
  • Isotopes Example 6
  • Isotopes Example 7
  • Examination Style Questions
  • Amount of Substance
  • Amount of Substance Example 1
  • Amount of Substance Example 2
  • Amount of Substance Example 3
  • Amount of Substance Example 4
  • Amount of Substance Example 5
  • Amount of Substance Example 6
  • Amount of Substance Example 7
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 1
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 2
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 3
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 4
  • Fundamental Particles
  • Fundamental Particles Example
  • Intermolecular Forces
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 1
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 2
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 3
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 4
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 5
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 1
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 2
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 3
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 4
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 5
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 6
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 7
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 8
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 9
  • Isotopes
  • Isotopes Example 1
  • Isotopes Example 2
  • Isotopes Example 3
  • Isotopes Example 4
  • Isotopes Example 5
  • Isotopes Example 6
  • Isotopes Example 7
  • Examination Style Questions
  • Amount of Substance
  • Amount of Substance Example 1
  • Amount of Substance Example 2
  • Amount of Substance Example 3
  • Amount of Substance Example 4
  • Amount of Substance Example 5
  • Amount of Substance Example 6
  • Amount of Substance Example 7
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 1
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 2
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 3
  • Bonding and Shapes of Molecules Example 4
  • Fundamental Particles
  • Fundamental Particles Example
  • Intermolecular Forces
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 1
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 2
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 3
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 4
  • Intermolecular Forces Example 5
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 1
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 2
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 3
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 4
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 5
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 6
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 7
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 8
  • Ionisation and Electron Structure Example 9
  • Isotopes
  • Isotopes Example 1
  • Isotopes Example 2
  • Isotopes Example 3
  • Isotopes Example 4
  • Isotopes Example 5
  • Isotopes Example 6
  • Isotopes Example 7
  • OCR_B Salters A Level Chemistry
  • Unit 1
  • Atomic Structure
  • Fundamental Particles
  • Introduction to Fundamental Particles
  • Basic Atomic Structure
  • The Nucleus, Atomic Number and Relative Atomic Mass
  • Isotopes
  • Isotopes Examples
  • Ions
  • Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass
  • Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass
  • The Mass Spectrometer
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
  • Electronic Configuration
  • Evidence for Shells and Orbitals Part 1
  • Evidence for Shells and Orbitals Part 2
  • Models in Science
  • Modela of the Atom
  • Atomic Models
  • The Development of Structure Since Ancient Greece
  • The Periodic Table
  • Classifying Elements
  • Nuclear Reactions and Radioactivity
  • Nuclear Reactions
  • Nuclear Reactions
  • Radioactivity
  • Radioactivity
  • Half-Life
  • Half-Life
  • Applications of Half-Life - Tracers
  • Applications of Half-Life - Carbon Dating
  • Half-Life Example 1
  • Half-Life Example 2
  • Periodicity
  • Periodic Table, Blocks
  • Splitting the Periodic Table into Blocks
  • Period 3 Elements
  • Atomic Radii
  • First Ionisation and Electronegativity
  • Electrical Conductivity
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • Trends in Period 2
  • Trends in Period 2 Elements
  • Group 2 Elements
  • Atomic Radii
  • First Ionisation and Electronegativity
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • Reaction with Water
  • Solubility of Hydroxide
  • Oxides and Hydroxides
  • Carbonates
  • Bonding
  • Types of Bond
  • Types of Bond Intro
  • Ionic Bonds
  • Covalent Bonds
  • Dative Bonds
  • Metallic Bonds
  • Giant Covalent Structures
  • States of Matter
  • Solid, Liquid and Gas
  • Shapes of Simple Molecules
  • Introduction to Shapes of Molecules
  • 2 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 3 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 4 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 5 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • 6 Pairs of Electrons Around Central Atom
  • Symbols on Diagrams
  • Drawing Shapes of Molecules
  • Amount of Substance
  • The Mole and Avogadro's Constant
  • The Mole and Avogadro's Constant
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae
  • Balanced Equations
  • The Idea of a Balanced Equation
  • Balanced Equation Examples
  • Entropy
  • Entropy
  • Introduction to Entropy
  • Energetics
  • Enthalpy Change
  • Enthalpy Change
  • Enthalpy of Combustion and Formation
  • Calorimetry
  • Calorimetry
  • Calorimetry Example 1
  • Calorimetry Example 2
  • Calorimetry Example 3
  • Hess's Law
  • Hess's Law of Constant Heat Summation
  • Hess's Law Example 1
  • Hess's Law Example 2
  • Hess's Law Example 3
  • Bond Enthalpy
  • The Meaning of Bond Enthalpy
  • Bond Enthalpy Example 1
  • Bond Enthalpy Example 2
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Nomenclature
  • The Alkanes
  • Empirical and Molecular Formulae - 2
  • Structural and Displayed Formulae
  • Skeletal formulae
  • Isomerism
  • Chain Isomers
  • Alcohols
  • Introduction
  • General Formula
  • Naming Alcohols
  • Petrol
  • Petrol
  • Introduction to Petrol
  • Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil
  • Saturated Hydrocarbons
  • Distillation in a Fractionating Column
  • Pollutants
  • Pollutants from Petrol
  • The Future
  • Fuels for the Future
  • Catalysts
  • Catalysts Introduction
  • Zeolites
  • Unit 2
  • Atomic Structure
  • Electronic Configuration
  • The Electron Structure for the First 36 Elements
  • More on the Order of Filling Shells
  • Shapes of s and p Orbitals
  • Successive Ionisation Energies
  • Ground State
  • Periodic Table, Blocks
  • Splitting the Periodic Table into Blocks
  • Bonding
  • Dipoles and Intermolecular Forces
  • Bond Polarity
  • Intermolecular Forces
  • Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules
  • The Concept of the Polar Bond and Polar Molecule
  • Sodium Chloride, Diamond and Silicon (IV) Oxide
  • Structure and Physical Properties
  • A Final Note on Intermolecular Forces
  • van der Waal's Forces
  • States of Matter
  • Solid, Liquid and Gas
  • Redox
  • Redox Reactions
  • Definitions
  • Half Equations
  • Half Equations 1
  • Half Equations 2
  • Oxidation States
  • Definitions and Rules
  • Oxidation States in Simple Compounds
  • Oxidation States in Ions and More Complex Compounds
  • Periodic Trends and Ions
  • Ionisation Enthalpies
  • Ionisation Enthalpies Introduction
  • Ionisation Enthalpies Periodic Trends
  • Precipitation Reactions and Ionic Equations
  • Detection of Halide Ions
  • The Halogens
  • Introduction
  • Introducing the Halogens
  • Physical Properties
  • Physical Properties Intro
  • Atomic Radii
  • Melting and Boiling Points
  • Electronegativity
  • Bond Energy
  • Summary of Appearance
  • Chemical Properties
  • Halogens as Oxidising Agents
  • Displacement Reactions
  • Reactions of the Halide Ions
  • Titrations
  • Indicators
  • Use of Indicators
  • Concentration
  • Concentration of Solutions
  • Performing Titrations
  • Performing Acid-Base Titrations
  • Titration Calculations
  • Titration Calculations Example 1
  • Titration Calculations Example 2
  • Volume Composition
  • Composition of the Atmosphere
  • How Proportions are Measured
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - General
  • Nomenclature
  • Homologous Series and Functional Groups
  • Haloalkanes
  • Introduction to Haloalkanes
  • Naming Haloalkanes
  • Alcohols
  • General Formula
  • Naming Alcohols
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Alcohols
  • Alcohols
  • Classification
  • Oxidation of Primary Alcohols
  • Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols
  • Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Tests for Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Haloalkanes
  • Synthesis of Haloalkanes from Alcohols
  • Method
  • Formation of Haloalkanes
  • Introduction to Formation
  • Initiation
  • Propagation
  • Termination
  • Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Nucleophilic Substitution 1 - Nucleophiles
  • The Mechanism for Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Reaction with Hydroxide Ions
  • Reaction with Cyanide Ions
  • Reaction with Ammonia
  • Uses of Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Rate of Hydrolysis
  • Reactivity of C - X Bond and Hydrolysis
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Alkenes
  • The pi Orbital
  • The pi Orbital
  • Reactivity
  • Reactivity
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Summary
  • Summary of Reactions to Learn
  • Summary of Important Organic Reactions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Isomers
  • Isomers
  • Introduction - Chain Isomers
  • Position Isomers
  • Geometrical Isomers
  • Advantages of E-Z Notation
  • Applications of Organic Chemistry
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Possible Replacement Compounds
  • Replacing CFCs
  • Polymers
  • Polythene
  • Polypropylene
  • Summary of Common Polymers
  • Environmental Issues
  • Chemistry and the Environment
  • The Greenhouse Effect
  • The Greenhouse Effect
  • Global Warming
  • Climate Change v Anthropogenic Change
  • Carbon Footprint and Carbon Neutral
  • Action Against Global warming
  • Summary of Atmoshpheric Gasses and Their Greenhouse Factor
  • The Ozone Layer and Air Pollution
  • The Ozone Layer
  • The Effect of CFCs and Nitrogen Oxides
  • Pollutants from Fuels
  • Analytical Techniques
  • Infra-Red Spectrometry
  • Infra-Red Spectrometry
  • Infra-Red Spectrographs
  • General Trends
  • More on Ionisation Enthalpies
  • Ionisation Enthalpies Periodic Trends
  • Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer
  • Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer
  • Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer
  • Mass of particles
  • Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer
  • 3. Energy from the nucleus
  • C. Where nuclear energy comes from
  • Nuclear stability
  • Mass-energy equivalence
  • Making new particles
  • Mass energy question 1
  • Mass energy question 2
  • Binding energy
  • Binding energy question 1
  • Binding energy question 2
  • B. Keeping the heart beating
  • Pacemaker batteries
  • Nuclear instability
  • Nuclear stability
  • 2. Nuclear energy
  • Mass and energy
  • Mass of particles
  • Mass-energy equivalence
  • Making new particles
  • Mass energy question 1
  • Mass energy question 2
  • Binding energy
  • Binding energy question 1
  • Binding energy question 2
  • Nuclear fission and fusion
  • Nuclear stability
  • Mass of particles
  • Mass-energy equivalence
  • Making new particles
  • Mass energy question 1
  • Mass energy question 2
  • Binding energy
  • Binding energy question 1
  • Binding energy question 2
  • Ionising radiation and risk
  • Nuclear stability
  • Mass of particles
  • Mass-energy equivalence
  • Making new particles
  • Mass energy question 1
  • Mass energy question 2
  • Binding energy
  • Binding energy question 1
  • Binding energy question 2
  • Mass of particles
  • Mass-energy equivalence
  • Making new particles
  • Mass energy question 1
  • Mass energy question 2
  • Nuclear energy
  • Nuclear stability
  • Mass of particles
  • Mass-energy equivalence
  • Making new particles
  • Mass energy question 1
  • Mass energy question 2
  • Binding energy
  • Binding energy question 1
  • Binding energy question 2
  • Nuclear energy
  • Nuclear stability
  • Mass of particles
  • Mass-energy equivalence
  • Making new particles
  • Mass energy question 1
  • Mass energy question 2
  • Binding energy
  • Binding energy question 1
  • Binding energy question 2
  • Capacitors
  • Energy stored in capacitors
  • Structure of capacitors
  • Uses of capacitors
  • Capacitor discharging and charging
  • Comparing capacitor discharge and radioactive decay
  • Capacitors question 1
  • Capacitors question 2
  • Capacitors question 3
  • Capacitors question 4
  • A. Isotopes in medicine
  • 4. Capacitance
  • Capacitance
  • Capacitors
  • Structure of capacitors
  • Uses of capacitors
  • Energy stored by a capacitor
  • Energy stored in capacitors
  • Capacitor discharge
  • Capacitor discharging and charging
  • Capacitors question 1
  • Capacitors question 2
  • Capacitors question 3
  • Capacitors question 4
  • 2. Capacitors and exponential decay
  • Capacitors
  • Capacitors
  • Energy stored in capacitors
  • Structure of capacitors
  • Uses of capacitors
  • Capacitor discharging and charging
  • Capacitors question 1
  • Capacitors question 2
  • Capacitors question 3
  • Capacitors question 4
  • Comparing capacitor discharge and radioactive decay
  • Capacitors
  • Energy stored in capacitors
  • Structure of capacitors
  • Uses of capacitors
  • Capacitor discharging and charging
  • Capacitors question 1
  • Capacitors question 2
  • Capacitors question 3
  • Capacitors question 4
  • Comparing capacitor discharge and radioactive decay
  • Capacitors
  • Energy stored in capacitors
  • Structure of capacitors
  • Uses of capacitors
  • Capacitor discharging and charging
  • Capacitors question 1
  • Capacitors question 2
  • Capacitors question 3
  • Capacitors question 4
  • Capacitors
  • Capacitors
  • Energy stored in capacitors
  • Structure of capacitors
  • Uses of capacitors
  • Capacitor discharging and charging
  • Capacitors question 1
  • Capacitors question 2
  • Capacitors question 3
  • Capacitors question 4
  • Capacitance
  • Capacitors
  • Energy stored in capacitors
  • Structure of capacitors
  • Uses of capacitors
  • Capacitor discharging and charging
  • Capacitors question 1
  • Capacitors question 2
  • Capacitors question 3
  • Capacitors question 4
  • Nuclear radiation
  • Ionisation
  • Inverse square law for gamma absorption
  • Half value thickness
  • Radioactive decay rate
  • Measuring half life
  • Biological half life
  • Background radiation
  • Isotopes in medicine
  • Radioactivity question 1
  • Radioactivity question 2
  • Radioactivity question 3
  • Radioactivity question 4
  • alpha, beta and gamma radiation
  • Nuclear radiation
  • Ionisation
  • Inverse square law for gamma absorption
  • Radioactive decay
  • Background radiation
  • Radioactive decay rate
  • Measuring half life
  • Radioactivity question 1
  • Radioactivity question 2
  • Radioactivity question 3
  • Radioactivity question 4
  • Radioactivity
  • Nuclear radiation
  • Ionisation
  • Radioactive decay rate
  • Measuring half life
  • Background radiation
  • Radioactivity question 1
  • Radioactivity question 2
  • Radioactivity question 3
  • Radioactivity question 4
  • Nuclear radiation
  • Ionisation
  • Radioactive decay rate
  • Measuring half life
  • Background radiation
  • Radioactivity question 1
  • Radioactivity question 2
  • Radioactivity question 3
  • Radioactivity question 4
  • Nuclear decay
  • Background radiation
  • Nuclear radiation
  • Ionisation
  • Radioactive decay rate
  • Measuring half life
  • Isotopes in medicine
  • Radioactivity question 1
  • Radioactivity question 2
  • Radioactivity question 3
  • Radioactivity question 4
  • Nuclear decay
  • Nuclear radiation
  • Ionisation
  • Radioactive decay rate
  • Measuring half life
  • Background radiation
  • Radioactivity question 1
  • Radioactivity question 2
  • Radioactivity question 3
  • Radioactivity question 4
  • Radioactivity and radioisotopes
  • Nuclear radiation
  • Ionisation
  • Background radiation
  • Radioactive decay rate
  • Measuring half life
  • Isotopes in medicine
  • Radioactivity question 1
  • Radioactivity question 2
  • Radioactivity question 3
  • Radioactivity question 4
  • 2. Breaking Matter Down
  • D. Accelerators and VDU
  • Electric fields
  • Electric field around a point charge
  • Coulomb's Law
  • Electron gun
  • Charged particles in electric fields
  • Charged particles in magnetic fields
  • Charged particles question 1
  • Charged particles question 2
  • Charged particles question 3
  • Charged particles question 4
  • Mass spectrometer
  • Mass spectrometer question 1
  • Linear accelerator
  • Cyclotron
  • Synchrotron
  • Large hadron collider
  • Relativity
  • Moles in Solutions
  • Concentration
  • Moles in a Given Solution
  • Moles in Solutions
  • Concentration
  • Moles in a Given Solution
  • Moles in Solutions
  • Concentration
  • Moles in a Given Solution
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Satellites
  • Q2 Circular motion
  • Q3 Gravitational fields
  • Q4 MRI Scanner
  • Q5 X-rays
  • Q6 Springs
  • D. Physics of fission
  • Nuclear fission
  • Nuclear reactors
  • Fission question 1
  • E. Fusion - energy for the future
  • Nuclear fusion
  • Fusion on Earth
  • Fusion question 1
  • F. Perceptions of risk
  • Risk
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Gas pressure
  • Q2 Decay chains
  • Q3 Fission
  • Q4 Capacitance
  • Q5 Mass spectrograph
  • Q6 Pacemakers
  • Past paper
  • Specimen Section A
  • Q1 Vectors and scalars
  • Q2 Momentum
  • Q3 Impulse
  • Q4 Momentum
  • Q5 Angular velocity
  • Q6 Circular motion
  • Q7 Circular motion
  • Q8 Simple harmonic motion
  • Q9 Pendulum
  • Q10 Damping
  • Q11 Gravitational fields
  • Q12 Gravitational force
  • Q13 Gravitational potential
  • Q14 Electrostatic forces
  • Q15 Field forces
  • Q16 Charges in magnetic fields
  • Q17 Electric potential and fields
  • Q18 Capacitors
  • Q19 Capacitors
  • Q20 Capacitors
  • Q21 Magnetic flux
  • Q22 Charges in mmagnetic fields
  • Q23 Induced emf
  • Q24 Transformers
  • Q25 National grid
  • Specimen Section B
  • Q1 Momentum
  • Q2 Springs
  • Q3 Satellites
  • Q4 Electrostatic forces
  • Q5 Capacitors
  • Q6 Induced emf
  • Induced fission
  • Nuclear fission
  • Nuclear reactors
  • Fission question 1
  • Past paper
  • Specimen Section A
  • Q1 Nuclear stability
  • Q2 Gas pressure
  • Q3 Heat capacity
  • Q4 Radioactive decay
  • Nuclear fission
  • Nuclear reactors
  • Fission question 1
  • Nuclear fusion
  • Fusion on Earth
  • Fusion question 1
  • Nuclear fission
  • Nuclear reactors
  • Fission question 1
  • Nuclear fusion
  • Fusion on Earth
  • Fusion question 1
  • Risk
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Units
  • Q2 Induced emf
  • Q3 Mass-energy
  • Q4 Kinetic energy and momentum
  • Q5 Electric fields
  • Q6 Charged particles in magnetic fields
  • Q7 Forces
  • Q8 Mesons
  • Q9 Fields
  • Q10 Fields
  • Q11 Force pairs
  • Q12 Baryons
  • Q13 Accelerators
  • Q14 Nuclear atom
  • Q15 Capacitors
  • Q16 Nuclear equations
  • Q17 Momentum
  • Q18 Wind turbines
  • Nuclear stability
  • Mass of particles
  • Mass-energy equivalence
  • Making new particles
  • Mass energy question 1
  • Mass energy question 2
  • Binding energy
  • Binding energy question 1
  • Binding energy question 2
  • Nuclear fission
  • Nuclear reactors
  • Fission question 1
  • Nuclear fusion
  • Fusion on Earth
  • Fusion question 1
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Units
  • Q2 Gravity
  • Q3 Simple harmonic motion
  • Q4 Cosmic background radiation
  • Q5 Background radiation
  • Q6 Resonance
  • Q7 Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
  • Q8 Absorption spectra
  • Q9 Red shift
  • Q10 Velocity time graph
  • Q11 Ideal gas
  • Q12 Alpha decay
  • Q13 Luminosity
  • Q14 Stefan-Boltzmann law
  • Q15 Hubble constant
  • Q16 Binding energy
  • Q17 Oscillations
  • Q18 Circular motion
  • Q19 Nuclear fusion
  • Nuclear energy
  • Nuclear fission
  • Nuclear reactors
  • Fission question 1
  • Nuclear fusion
  • Fusion on Earth
  • Fusion question 1
  • Gravitational fields
  • Risk
  • Nuclear energy
  • Nuclear fission
  • Nuclear reactors
  • Fission question 1
  • Nuclear fusion
  • Fusion on Earth
  • Fusion question 1
  • CT scan
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Momentum
  • Q2 Satellites
  • Q3 Simple harmonic motion
  • Q4 Heat
  • Q5 Kinetic theory
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Electric fields
  • Q2 Capacitors
  • Q3 Radioactivity
  • Q4 Electromagnetic induction
  • Q5 Cosmology
  • Q6 Expansion of the Universe
  • Q7 Ultrasound
  • Q8 X rays
  • Q9 MRI
  • Q10 Binding energy
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Gravitational fields
  • Q2 Ideal gases
  • Q3 Simple harmonic motion
  • Q4 Ideal gases
  • Q5 Capacitors
  • Q6 Newton's third law
  • Q7 Capacitors
  • Q8 Planetary orbits
  • Q9 Heat
  • Q10 Simple harmonic motion
  • Q11 Radioactive decay
  • Past paper
  • Specimen
  • Q1 Quarks
  • Q2 Nuclear fusion
  • Q3 Photon energy
  • Q4 Electric fields and potentials
  • Q5 Electromagnetic forces
  • Q6 Binding energy
  • Q7 Electric fields
  • Q8 Transformers
  • Q9 Photons
  • Q10 Particle accelerators
  • Q11 Risk and radioactivity
  • Q12 Alpha decay and momentum
  • Q13 Beta decay
  • Q14 Neutrino detection
  • Q15 Neutrino detection
  • Q16 Photons and neutrinos
  • Impulse and force-time graphs
  • Angular velocity
  • Phase difference with forced vibrations
  • Variation of gravitational field strength and potential with separation
  • Electric fields question 1
  • Electric fields question 2
  • Electric fields question 3
  • Electric fields question 4
  • Electric fields question 5
  • Electric potential
  • Electric potential
  • Electric potential question 1
  • Comparison of electric and gravitational fields
  • Comparing electric and gravitational fields
  • a.c. generator
  • Transformers
  • National grid
  • Impulse and force-time graphs
  • Electric fields question 1
  • Electric fields question 2
  • Electric fields question 3
  • Electric fields question 4
  • Electric fields question 5
  • a.c. generator
  • Transformers
  • National grid
  • Impulse and force-time graphs
  • Variation of gravitational field strength and potential with separation
  • a.c. generator
  • Transformers
  • National grid
  • Electric fields question 1
  • Electric fields question 2
  • Electric fields question 3
  • Electric fields question 4
  • Electric fields question 5
  • Electric potential
  • Electric potential question 1
  • Electric fields question 1
  • Electric fields question 2
  • Electric fields question 3
  • Electric fields question 4
  • Electric fields question 5
  • Electric fields
  • Electric fields question 1
  • Electric fields question 2
  • Electric fields question 3
  • Electric fields question 4
  • Electric fields question 5
  • Magnetic fields
  • Transformers
  • National grid
  • Electrostatic and gravitational fields of force
  • Electric fields question 1
  • Electric fields question 2
  • Electric fields question 3
  • Electric fields question 4
  • Electric fields question 5
  • Electric potential
  • Electric potential question 1
  • Variation of gravitational field strength and potential with separation
  • Electromagnetic induction
  • a.c. generator
  • Unit 4
  • Aromatic Chemistry
  • The Benzene Ring
  • Introduction to Aromatic Compounds
  • Kekulé Structure
  • The Delocalised Model
  • The Delocalised Model and Chemical Reactivity
  • Benzene
  • Combustion of Benzene
  • Nitration of Benzene
  • TNT
  • PCBs
  • Friedel-Crafts Reactions
  • Friedel-Crafts Reactions - Acylation
  • Physical Properties
  • Naming
  • Unit 4
  • Aromatic Chemistry
  • The Benzene Ring
  • Introduction to Aromatic Compounds
  • Kekulé Structure
  • The Delocalised Model
  • The Delocalised Model and Chemical Reactivity
  • Benzene
  • Combustion of Benzene
  • Nitration of Benzene
  • TNT
  • Substitution Reactions with Halogens
  • PCBs
  • Physical Properties
  • Naming
  • Phenols
  • Introduction to Phenols
  • Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions
  • The Reaction of Phenol with Bromine
  • Reaction of Phenol with NaOH
  • Reaction of Phenol with Sodium
  • Uses of Phenols
  • Unit 5
  • Aromatic Chemistry
  • The Benzene Ring
  • Introduction to Aromatic Compounds
  • Kekulé Structure
  • The Delocalised Model
  • The Delocalised Model and Chemical Reactivity
  • Benzene
  • Combustion of Benzene
  • Nitration of Benzene
  • TNT
  • Substitution Reactions with Halogens
  • PCBs
  • Friedel-Crafts Reactions
  • Friedel-Crafts Reactions - Alkylation
  • Friedel-Crafts Reactions - Acylation
  • Physical Properties
  • Naming
  • Phenols
  • Introduction to Phenols
  • Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions
  • The Reaction of Phenol with Bromine
  • Nitration of Phenol
  • Reaction of Phenol with NaOH
  • Reaction of Phenol with Sodium
  • Reaction of Phenol with Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Hydrogencarbonate
  • Phenol as an Acid - Reaction with Water
  • Phenol as an Alcohol
  • Some Other Compounds
  • Benzoic Acid
  • 2 - methylnitrobenzene
  • Molar mass and molecular mass
  • Identifying radiation
  • Nuclear safety
  • Identifying radiation
  • Radioactive waste
  • Radioactive dating
  • Electron capture
  • Isotopes in medicine
  • Nuclear radius
  • Nuclear radius
  • Nuclear density
  • Safety aspects
  • Nuclear safety
  • Latent heat
  • Molar mass and molecular mass
  • Latent heat
  • Molar mass and molecular mass
  • Nuclear radius
  • Nuclear density
  • Identifying radiation
  • Radioactive dating
  • Nuclear safety
  • Radioactive waste
  • Identifying radiation
  • Molar mass and molecular mass
  • Nuclear safety
  • Molar mass and molecular mass
  • Identifying radiation
  • Radioactive waste
  • The nucleus
  • Nuclear radius
  • Nuclear density
  • Nuclear decay
  • Identifying radiation
  • Nuclear energy
  • Nuclear safety
  • Thermal physics
  • Molar mass and molecular mass
  • Radioactivity and radioisotopes
  • Identifying radiation
  • Nuclear energy
  • Nuclear safety
  • Radioactive waste
  • Degrees and radians
  • Degrees and radians
  • Circular motion
  • Degrees and radians
  • Kepler and Newton
  • Phase difference with forced vibrations
  • Solid, liquid and gas
  • Solids, liquids and gases
  • Brownian motion
  • Internal energy
  • Comparing electric and gravitational fields
  • Capacitors in series and parallel
  • Strong force
  • Beta decay
  • Comparing capacitor discharge and radioactive decay
  • Smoke detector
  • Nuclear bomb
  • Intensity
  • Half value thickness
  • Isotopes in medicine
  • Doppler effect in medicine
  • Piezoelectric effect
  • Acoustic impedance
  • Degrees and radians
  • Degrees and radians
  • Uniform circular motion
  • Degrees and radians
  • Gravitational fields
  • Kepler and Newton
  • Vibrations
  • Degrees and radians
  • Application to orbits in the Solar System and the wider Universe
  • Kepler and Newton
  • Capacitance
  • Capacitors in series and parallel
  • Unit 5
  • Reaction Rate
  • Rate of a Reaction
  • Rate of a Reaction
  • Measuring the Rate of a Reaction
  • Rate Expression and Order of Reaction
  • Half Lives
  • Determining the Rate Equation
  • Rate-Concentration Graphs
  • The Initial Rate Method
  • More on Reaction Rates
  • The Rate Determining Step
  • Effect of Temperature and Catalysts
  • Reaction Rate
  • Rate of a Reaction
  • Rate of a Reaction
  • Measuring the Rate of a Reaction
  • Rate Expression and Order of Reaction
  • Half Lives
  • Determining the Rate Equation
  • Rate-Concentration Graphs
  • The Initial Rate Method
  • More on Reaction Rates
  • The Rate Determining Step
  • Effect of Temperature and Catalysts
  • Unit 4
  • Reaction Rate
  • Rate of a Reaction
  • Rate of a Reaction
  • Measuring the Rate of a Reaction
  • Rate Expression and Order of Reaction
  • Half Lives
  • Determining the Rate Equation
  • Rate-Concentration Graphs
  • The Initial Rate Method
  • More on Reaction Rates
  • The Rate Determining Step
  • Effect of Temperature and Catalysts
  • Constituents of the atom
  • Mass spectrometer
  • Mass spectrometer question 1
  • Relativistic effects
  • Bubble chamber tracks
  • Electron diffraction
  • Internal energy
  • SHM and circular motion
  • Gravitational field strength
  • Electric and gravitational fields
  • Inverse square law
  • Astronomical distances
  • Stephan-Boltzmann law
  • Hubble's Law
  • Big bang
  • Critical density
  • JET
  • JET
  • Creating models
  • Brownian motion
  • Random walk
  • Matter hot nd cold
  • Energy of particles
  • Energy and reactions
  • Boltzmann factor
  • Hadrons
  • Discovery of quarks
  • Quarks and leptons
  • Evidence of neutrinos
  • Forces of nature
  • JET
  • Radioactive decay rate
  • Measuring half life
  • Half value thickness
  • Radiation dose
  • JET
  • Momentum, Thermal Physics, Circular Motion, Oscillations and Atomic and Nuclear
  • Nuclear fission
  • Nuclear fission
  • Nuclear reactors
  • Nuclear safety
  • Fission question 1
  • Nuclear fusion
  • Nuclear fusion
  • Fusion on Earth
  • Inertial confinement for fusion
  • D-T reaction
  • JET
  • Fusion question 1
  • Fields and their applications
  • Force fields
  • Force fields
  • Gravitational fields
  • Gravitational field strength
  • Newton's law of gravitation
  • Mass of the Earth
  • Electric fields
  • Permittivity
  • Comparing electric and gravitational fields
  • Capacitors
  • Capacitors in series and parallel
  • Electromagnetism, nuclei and options
  • Nuclear energy
  • JET
  • Thermal physics
  • Work done by expanding gases
  • Electromagnetic induction
  • Oscilloscope
  • Option A2/A
  • Further electromagnetism and alternating currents
  • Transformers
  • Half value thickness
  • Piezoelectric effect
  • Acoustic impedance
  • Radiation dose
  • SHM and phase
  • Momentum concepts
  • Photon momentum
  • Internal energy
  • Electrostatic and gravitational fields of force
  • Multiple charges
  • Multiple masses
  • Application to orbits in the Solar System and the wider Universe
  • Dark matter
  • Centre of mass of binary stars
  • Capacitance
  • Structure of capacitors
  • B-fields
  • Magnetic fields due to electrical current
  • Force between current carrying conductors
  • EMF in a moving wire
  • Alternating current
  • The Haber Process
  • Introduction to Industrial Processes
  • Industrial Applications of Equilibrium Principles
  • Industrial Processes
  • The Manufacture of Hydrogen
  • The Contact Process
  • The Haber Process
  • Introduction to Industrial Processes
  • Industrial Applications of Equilibrium Principles
  • Industrial Processes
  • The Manufacture of Hydrogen
  • The Contact Process
  • The Haber Process
  • Introduction to Industrial Processes
  • Industrial Applications of Equilibrium Principles
  • Industrial Processes
  • The Contact Process
  • The Manufacture of Hydrogen
  • Acids and Bases
  • Introduction
  • History and Definitions
  • Dissociation in Aqueous Solution
  • Mono, Di and Tri-basic Acids
  • Acid-Base Reactions
  • Acid-Base Reactions - General
  • Acid-Base Reactions - Carbonates, Bases and Alkalis
  • Acid-Base Reactions - Redox Reactions with Metals
  • Conjugate Pairs
  • Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
  • Examples of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
  • Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
  • Strong and weak Acids Introduction
  • Ka and pKa calculations
  • Strong and Weak Bases
  • pH
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 1
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 2
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 3
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 4
  • Water
  • Dissociation of Water
  • Ionic Product of Water
  • pH Values for Bases
  • pH Values For Bases Intro
  • pH Values For Bases Example
  • Buffer Solutions
  • Buffer Solutions Intro
  • Buffer Solutions - How They Work
  • pH Values of Buffer Solutions
  • pH of Buffer Solutions Example
  • Blood and Buffer Systems
  • Neutralisation and Titration
  • Neutralisation and Titration Curves
  • Choice of Indicators
  • Neutralisation and Enthalpy Changes
  • Determining the Enthalpy Change
  • Acids and Bases
  • Introduction
  • History and Definitions
  • Dissociation in Aqueous Solution
  • Mono, Di and Tri-basic Acids
  • Acid-Base Reactions
  • Acid-Base Reactions - General
  • Acid-Base Reactions - Carbonates, Bases and Alkalis
  • Acid-Base Reactions - Redox Reactions with Metals
  • Conjugate Pairs
  • Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
  • Examples of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
  • Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
  • Strong and weak Acids Introduction
  • Ka and pKa calculations
  • Strong and Weak Bases
  • pH
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 1
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 2
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 3
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 4
  • Water
  • Dissociation of Water
  • Ionic Product of Water
  • pH Values for Bases
  • pH Values For Bases Intro
  • pH Values For Bases Example
  • Buffer Solutions
  • Buffer Solutions Intro
  • Buffer Solutions - How They Work
  • pH Values of Buffer Solutions
  • pH of Buffer Solutions Example
  • Blood and Buffer Systems
  • Neutralisation and Titration
  • Neutralisation and Titration Curves
  • Choice of Indicators
  • Neutralisation and Enthalpy Changes
  • Determining the Enthalpy Change
  • Carbonyl Compounds
  • Acids and Bases
  • Introduction
  • History and Definitions
  • Dissociation in Aqueous Solution
  • Mono, Di and Tri-basic Acids
  • Acid-Base Reactions
  • Acid-Base Reactions - General
  • Acid-Base Reactions - Carbonates, Bases and Alkalis
  • Acid-Base Reactions - Redox Reactions with Metals
  • Conjugate Pairs
  • Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
  • Examples of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
  • Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
  • Strong and weak Acids Introduction
  • Ka and pKa calculations
  • Strong and Weak Bases
  • pH
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 1
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 2
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 3
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 4
  • Water
  • Dissociation of Water
  • Ionic Product of Water
  • pH Values for Bases
  • pH Values For Bases Intro
  • pH Values For Bases Example
  • Buffer Solutions
  • Buffer Solutions Intro
  • Buffer Solutions - How They Work
  • pH Values of Buffer Solutions
  • pH of Buffer Solutions Example
  • Blood and Buffer Systems
  • Neutralisation and Titration
  • Neutralisation and Titration Curves
  • Choice of Indicators
  • Neutralisation and Enthalpy Changes
  • Determining the Enthalpy Change
  • The Structure of Acids
  • The structure of Acids
  • Introduction
  • Introducing Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Naming Aldehydes
  • Naming Ketones
  • Physical Properties
  • Carbonyl Compounds
  • Introduction
  • Introducing Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Naming Aldehydes
  • Naming Ketones
  • Physical Properties
  • Carbonyl Compounds
  • Introduction
  • Introducing Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Naming Aldehydes
  • Naming Ketones
  • Physical Properties
  • Laboratory Preparation
  • Laboratory Preparation - General
  • Laboratory Preparation - Aldehydes
  • Laboratory Preparation - Ketones
  • Oxidation of Alcohols
  • Oxidation of Alcohols - General
  • Oxidation of Alcohols - Primary Alcohols
  • Oxidation of Alcohols - Secondary Alcohols
  • Laboratory Preparation
  • Laboratory Preparation - General
  • Laboratory Preparation - Aldehydes
  • Laboratory Preparation - Ketones
  • Oxidation of Alcohols
  • Oxidation of Alcohols - General
  • Oxidation of Alcohols - Primary Alcohols
  • Oxidation of Alcohols - Secondary Alcohols
  • Laboratory Preparation
  • Laboratory Preparation - General
  • Laboratory Preparation - Aldehydes
  • Laboratory Preparation - Ketones
  • Oxidation of Alcohols
  • Oxidation of Alcohols - General
  • Oxidation of Alcohols - Primary Alcohols
  • Oxidation of Alcohols - Secondary Alcohols
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 5
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 5
  • pH and Ka calculations for Strong and Weak Acids Example 5
  • Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds
  • Reduction
  • Nucleophilic Addition
  • Reaction with HCN
  • Reaction with HCN - Stereochemistry
  • Chemical Tests
  • Detecting the Carbonyl Group
  • Aldehyde or Ketone
  • Final Determination
  • Recrystallisation
  • Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds
  • Reduction
  • Nucleophilic Addition
  • Reaction with HCN
  • Reaction with HCN - Stereochemistry
  • Reaction with Compounds Containing H2N
  • Iodoform Reaction
  • Chemical Tests
  • Detecting the Carbonyl Group
  • Aldehyde or Ketone
  • Final Determination
  • Recrystallisation
  • Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds
  • Reduction
  • Nucleophilic Addition
  • Reaction with HCN
  • Reaction with HCN - Stereochemistry
  • Chemical Tests
  • Detecting the Carbonyl Group
  • Aldehyde or Ketone
  • Final Determination
  • Recrystallisation
  • Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
  • Naming Carboxylic Acids
  • Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
  • Preparation
  • Laboratory Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Reactions of Carboxylic Acids Intro
  • Reaction with Water
  • Reaction with Metals
  • Reaction with Bases
  • Reaction with Carbonates and Hydrogencarbonates
  • A Note on Esters
  • Esterification
  • Reduction
  • Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
  • Naming Carboxylic Acids
  • Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
  • Preparation
  • Laboratory Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Reactions of Carboxylic Acids Intro
  • Reaction with Water
  • Reaction with Metals
  • Reaction with Bases
  • Reaction with Carbonates and Hydrogencarbonates
  • A Note on Esters
  • Esterification
  • Reduction
  • Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
  • Naming Carboxylic Acids
  • Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
  • Preparation
  • Laboratory Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Reactions of Carboxylic Acids Intro
  • Reaction with Water
  • Reaction with Metals
  • Reaction with Bases
  • Reaction with Carbonates and Hydrogencarbonates
  • A Note on Esters
  • Esterification
  • Reduction
  • Practicals
  • Practical Skills
  • Graphing
  • Tabulating Data
  • Plotting a Graph
  • Rearranging Equations and Plotting a Straight Line Graph
  • Variables
  • Errors
  • Random and Systematic Errors
  • Estimating Uncertainty
  • Measuring and Percentage Uncertainty
  • Combining Uncertainties
  • Range of Readings
  • Equipment
  • Micrometer
  • Vernier Caliper
  • Practicals
  • Practical Skills
  • Graphing
  • Tabulating Data
  • Plotting a Graph
  • Rearranging Equations and Plotting a Straight Line Graph
  • Variables
  • Errors
  • Random and Systematic Errors
  • Estimating Uncertainty
  • Measuring and Percentage Uncertainty
  • Combining Uncertainties
  • Range of Readings
  • Equipment
  • Micrometer
  • Vernier Caliper
  • Practicals
  • Practical Skills
  • Graphing
  • Tabulating Data
  • Plotting a Graph
  • Rearranging Equations and Plotting a Straight Line Graph
  • Variables
  • Errors
  • Random and Systematic Errors
  • Estimating Uncertainty
  • Measuring and Percentage Uncertainty
  • Combining Uncertainties
  • Range of Readings
  • Equipment
  • Micrometer
  • Vernier Caliper
  • Practicals
  • Practical Skills
  • Graphing
  • Tabulating Data
  • Plotting a Graph
  • Rearranging Equations and Plotting a Straight Line Graph
  • Variables
  • Errors
  • Random and Systematic Errors
  • Estimating Uncertainty
  • Measuring and Percentage Uncertainty
  • Combining Uncertainties
  • Range of Readings
  • Equipment
  • Micrometer
  • Vernier Caliper
  • Practicals
  • Practical Skills
  • Graphing
  • Tabulating Data
  • Plotting a Graph
  • Rearranging Equations and Plotting a Straight Line Graph
  • Variables
  • Errors
  • Random and Systematic Errors
  • Estimating Uncertainty
  • Measuring and Percentage Uncertainty
  • Combining Uncertainties
  • Range of Readings
  • Equipment
  • Micrometer
  • Vernier Caliper
  • Practicals
  • Practical Skills
  • Graphing
  • Tabulating Data
  • Plotting a Graph
  • Rearranging Equations and Plotting a Straight Line Graph
  • Variables
  • Errors
  • Random and Systematic Errors
  • Estimating Uncertainty
  • Measuring and Percentage Uncertainty
  • Combining Uncertainties
  • Range of Readings
  • Equipment
  • Micrometer
  • Vernier Caliper
  • Practicals
  • Practical Skills
  • Graphing
  • Tabulating Data
  • Plotting a Graph
  • Rearranging Equations and Plotting a Straight Line Graph
  • Variables
  • Errors
  • Random and Systematic Errors
  • Estimating Uncertainty
  • Measuring and Percentage Uncertainty
  • Combining Uncertainties
  • Range of Readings
  • Equipment
  • Micrometer
  • Vernier Caliper
  • Esters
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Esters
  • Physical Properties of Esters
  • Preparation
  • From Carboxylic Acids and Alcohols
  • From Acid Anhydrides and Acyl Chlorides
  • Reactions
  • Hydrolysis
  • Transesterification
  • Polyesters
  • Polyesters - Intro
  • Polyesters - Process
  • Polyesters - Examples
  • Esters
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Esters
  • Physical Properties of Esters
  • Preparation
  • From Carboxylic Acids and Alcohols
  • From Acid Anhydrides and Acyl Chlorides
  • Reactions
  • Hydrolysis
  • Transesterification
  • Polyesters
  • Polyesters - Intro
  • Polyesters - Process
  • Polyesters - Examples
  • Esters
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Esters
  • Physical Properties of Esters
  • Preparation
  • From Carboxylic Acids and Alcohols
  • From Acid Anhydrides and Acyl Chlorides
  • Reactions
  • Hydrolysis
  • Transesterification
  • Polyesters
  • Polyesters - Intro
  • Polyesters - Process
  • Polyesters - Examples
  • Fats and Oils
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Fats and Oils
  • More on Fatty Acids
  • Triglycerides
  • Introducing Triglycerides
  • Isomerism
  • Isomerism and Fatty Acids
  • Diet and Health
  • Diet and Health
  • Biofuels
  • Biofuels
  • Fats and Oils
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Fats and Oils
  • More on Fatty Acids
  • Triglycerides
  • Introducing Triglycerides
  • Isomerism
  • Isomerism and Fatty Acids
  • Diet and Health
  • Diet and Health
  • Biofuels
  • Biofuels
  • Fats and Oils
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Fats and Oils
  • More on Fatty Acids
  • Triglycerides
  • Introducing Triglycerides
  • Isomerism
  • Isomerism and Fatty Acids
  • Diet and Health
  • Diet and Health
  • Biofuels
  • Biofuels
  • Reaction with Haloalkanes
  • Reaction with Acids
  • Amines as Bases
  • Reactions of Amines
  • Preparation of Amines
  • Physical Properties of Amines
  • Naming Amines
  • Introduction to Amines
  • Introduction to Amines
  • Amines
  • Diazotisation and Coupling
  • Reactions of Phenylamine
  • Preparation of Phenylamine
  • Introduction to Phenylamine
  • Phenylamine
  • Reaction with Haloalkanes
  • Reaction with Acid Chlorides
  • Reaction with Acids
  • Amines as Bases
  • Reactions of Amines
  • Preparation of Amines
  • Physical Properties of Amines
  • Naming Amines
  • Introduction to Amines
  • Amines
  • Introduction to Amines
  • Diazotisation and Coupling
  • Reactions of Phenylamine
  • Preparation of Phenylamine
  • Introduction to Phenylamine
  • Phenylamine
  • Reaction with Haloalkanes
  • Reaction with Acids
  • Amines as Bases
  • Reactions of Amines
  • Preparation of Amines
  • Physical Properties of Amines
  • Naming Amines
  • Introduction to Amines
  • Amines
  • Introduction to Amines
  • Phenylamine
  • Introduction to Phenylamine
  • Preparation of Phenylamine
  • Reactions of Phenylamine
  • Diazotisation and Coupling
  • Amino Acids
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Amino Acids
  • Zwitterions and Their Isoelectric Point
  • Some Naturally Occurring Amino Acids
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Stereoisomerism and Optical Isomerism
  • Amino Acids and Optical Isomerism
  • Optical Activity
  • Proteins
  • Peptide Linkages
  • Polypeptides and Proteins
  • Hydrolysis of Polypeptides and Proteins
  • Protein Structure
  • Amino Acids
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Amino Acids
  • Zwitterions and Their Isoelectric Point
  • Some Naturally Occurring Amino Acids
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Stereoisomerism and Optical Isomerism
  • Amino Acids and Optical Isomerism
  • Optical Activity
  • Proteins
  • Peptide Linkages
  • Polypeptides and Proteins
  • Hydrolysis of Polypeptides and Proteins
  • Protein Structure
  • Amino Acids
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Amino Acids
  • Zwitterions and Their Isoelectric Point
  • Some Naturally Occurring Amino Acids
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Stereoisomerism and Optical Isomerism
  • Amino Acids and Optical Isomerism
  • Optical Activity
  • Proteins
  • Peptide Linkages
  • Polypeptides and Proteins
  • Hydrolysis of Polypeptides and Proteins
  • Protein Structure
  • Hooke's Law
  • Nuclear stability
  • Mass of particles
  • Mass-energy equivalence
  • Making new particles
  • Mass energy question 1
  • Mass energy question 2
  • Binding energy
  • Binding energy question 1
  • Binding energy question 2
  • Nuclear fission
  • Nuclear reactors
  • Nuclear safety
  • Radioactive waste
  • Fission question 1
  • Unit 5
  • Transition Metals
  • Introduction
  • Introducing the Transition Metals
  • Ionisation Energies
  • Physical Properties and Uses
  • Variable Oxidation States
  • Colours
  • Transition Metals
  • Introduction
  • Introducing the Transition Metals
  • Ionisation Energies
  • Physical Properties and Uses
  • Variable Oxidation States
  • Colours
  • Transition Metals
  • Introduction
  • Introducing the Transition Metals
  • Ionisation Energies
  • Physical Properties and Uses
  • Variable Oxidation States
  • Colours
  • Catalysts
  • Transition Metals and Catalysis
  • Complex Ions
  • Complex Ions
  • Shapes of Complex Ions
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Catalysts
  • Transition Metals and Catalysis
  • Precipitation Reactions
  • Precipitation Reactions
  • Complex Ions
  • Complex Ions
  • Shapes of Complex Ions
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Bidentate Ligands
  • Bidentate Ligands
  • Isomerism in Bidentate Ligands
  • Multidentate Ligands
  • Optical Isomers
  • Ligand Substitution Reactions
  • Cobalt II and Copper II with HCl
  • Cobalt II and Copper II with Ammonia
  • Polymers
  • Types of Polymer
  • Addition Polymers
  • Condensation Polymers
  • Identifying Polymers
  • Identifying Types of Polymers
  • Breaking Down Polymers
  • Breaking Down Condensation Polymers
  • Hydrolysis
  • Polymers
  • Types of Polymer
  • Addition Polymers
  • Condensation Polymers
  • Identifying Polymers
  • Identifying Types of Polymers
  • Breaking Down Polymers
  • Breaking Down Condensation Polymers
  • Hydrolysis
  • Energy
  • Definitions
  • Lattice Enthalpy
  • Enthalpy of Formation
  • Enthalpy of Atomisation
  • Ionisation Energies
  • Electron Affinity
  • Born-Haber Cycles
  • Constructing Born_Haber Cycles
  • Born-Haber Cycles Example 1
  • Born-Haber Cycles Example 2
  • Born-Haber Cycles Example 3
  • Born-Haber Cycles Example 4
  • Born-Haber Cycles Example 5
  • Solubility
  • Dissolving Ionic Solids
  • Born-Haber Example Using Solutions
  • Factors Affecting Lattice Enthalpy
  • Enthalpy Change of Hydration
  • Entropy
  • Introduction to Entropy
  • More on Entropy Changes
  • Basic Entropy Calculations
  • Free Energy
  • Free Energy and Feasibility
  • Free Energy Example
  • Redox
  • Redox Reaction Review
  • Constructing Redox Reactions
  • Cells and Half Cells
  • Half Cells
  • Cells
  • Cell Potentials
  • Feasibility of Reactions
  • The Electrochemical Series and its Limitations
  • Storage Cells
  • Fuel Cells
  • Introduction to Fuel Cells
  • Hydrogen and the Future
  • More on Cell Potentials
  • Measuring Standard Cell Potentials
  • Non-Standard Conditions
  • Energy
  • Definitions
  • Lattice Enthalpy
  • Enthalpy of Formation
  • Enthalpy of Atomisation
  • Ionisation Energies
  • Electron Affinity
  • Born-Haber Cycles
  • Constructing Born_Haber Cycles
  • Born-Haber Cycles Example 1
  • Born-Haber Cycles Example 2
  • Born-Haber Cycles Example 3
  • Born-Haber Cycles Example 4
  • Born-Haber Cycles Example 5
  • Solubility
  • Dissolving Ionic Solids
  • Born-Haber Example Using Solutions
  • Factors Affecting Lattice Enthalpy
  • Enthalpy Change of Hydration
  • Bond Enthalpies
  • Comparing Bond Strengths
  • Using Mean Bond Enthalpies in Born_Haber Cycles
  • Entropy
  • Introduction to Entropy
  • More on Entropy Changes
  • Basic Entropy Calculations
  • Free Energy
  • Free Energy and Feasibility
  • Free Energy Example
  • Redox
  • Redox Reaction Review
  • Constructing Redox Reactions
  • Cells and Half Cells
  • Half Cells
  • Cells
  • Cell Potentials
  • Feasibility of Reactions
  • The Electrochemical Series and its Limitations
  • Storage Cells
  • Fuel Cells
  • Introduction to Fuel Cells
  • Hydrogen and the Future
  • More on Cell Potentials
  • Measuring Standard Cell Potentials
  • Non-Standard Conditions
  • Energy
  • Redox
  • Redox Reaction Review
  • Constructing Redox Reactions
  • Cells and Half Cells
  • Half Cells
  • Cells
  • Cell Potentials
  • Feasibility of Reactions
  • The Electrochemical Series and its Limitations
  • Storage Cells
  • Fuel Cells
  • Introduction to Fuel Cells
  • Hydrogen and the Future
  • More on Cell Potentials
  • Measuring Standard Cell Potentials
  • The Effect of Non-Standard Conditions
  • Oxidising and Reducing Agents
  • Oxidising and Reducing Agents
  • Oxidising Agents
  • Estimating the Concentration of an Oxidising Agent
  • Estimating the Concentration of an Oxidising Agent - An Example
  • Reducing Agents
  • Reducing Agents - An Example
  • Uncertainty of Measurements
  • Calculations Involving Masses
  • Calculations Involving Masses Example 1
  • Calculations Involving Masses Example 2
  • Calculations Involving Masses Example 3
  • Calculations Involving Masses
  • Calculations Involving Masses Example 1
  • Calculations Involving Masses Example 2
  • Calculations Involving Masses Example 3
  • Calculations Involving Masses
  • Calculations Involving Masses Example 1
  • Calculations Involving Masses Example 2
  • Calculations Involving Masses Example 3
  • Analysis
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Mass Spectrometry Introduction
  • Identifying Compounds with Mass Spectrometry
  • Two More Compounds with R.M.M. 58 Propanone and Propanal
  • Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Infrared Spectrographs
  • IR and Alcohols
  • IR and Molecules Containing a C = O Functional Group
  • Chromatography
  • Paper Chromatography
  • How Does Chromatography Work?
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
  • Gas Chromatography (GC)
  • Gas Chromatography Combined with Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS)
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
  • NMR Intro Part 1
  • NMR Intro Part 2
  • NMR Intro Part 3
  • Carbon - 13 NMR
  • Carbon - 13 Spectra - a Simple Case Study
  • Carbon - 13 Spectra - Some More Complex Molecules
  • Carbon - 13 Spectra - Some Chemical Shift Values
  • Propan - 1 - ol and Propan - 2 - ol
  • Propanal and Propanone
  • Proton NMR Spectroscopy
  • Proton NMR Spectra - Some Chemical Shift Values
  • The Integration Trace
  • Proton NMR Spectra - Some Simple Cases
  • Spin-Spin Coupling
  • Spin-Spin Coupling Peaks Explained
  • Spin-Spin Coupling Peaks Examples
  • OH and NH Protons
  • Use of Heavy Water
  • Examples
  • Medical Uses of NMR
  • Combined Techniques
  • Use of Combined Techniques
  • Combined Techniques Examples
  • Analysis
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Mass Spectrometry Introduction
  • Identifying Compounds with Mass Spectrometry
  • Two More Compounds with R.M.M. 58 Propanone and Propanal
  • Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Infrared Spectrographs
  • IR and Alcohols
  • IR and Molecules Containing a C = O Functional Group
  • Chromatography
  • Paper Chromatography
  • How Does Chromatography Work?
  • Gas Chromatography (GC)
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
  • NMR Intro Part 1
  • NMR Intro Part 2
  • NMR Intro Part 3
  • Carbon - 13 NMR
  • Carbon - 13 Spectra - a Simple Case Study
  • Carbon - 13 Spectra - Some More Complex Molecules
  • Carbon - 13 Spectra - Some Chemical Shift Values
  • Propan - 1 - ol and Propan - 2 - ol
  • Propanal and Propanone
  • Proton NMR Spectroscopy
  • Proton NMR Spectra - Some Chemical Shift Values
  • The Integration Trace
  • Proton NMR Spectra - Some Simple Cases
  • Spin-Spin Coupling
  • Spin-Spin Coupling Peaks Explained
  • Spin-Spin Coupling Peaks Examples
  • OH and NH Protons
  • Use of Heavy Water
  • Examples
  • Medical Uses of NMR
  • Analysis
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Mass Spectrometry Introduction
  • Identifying Compounds with Mass Spectrometry
  • Two More Compounds with R.M.M. 58 Propanone and Propanal
  • Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Infrared Spectrographs
  • IR and Alcohols
  • IR and Molecules Containing a C = O Functional Group
  • Chromatography
  • Paper Chromatography
  • How Does Chromatography Work?
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
  • Gas Chromatography (GC)
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
  • NMR Intro Part 1
  • NMR Intro Part 2
  • NMR Intro Part 3
  • Carbon - 13 NMR
  • Carbon - 13 Spectra - a Simple Case Study
  • Carbon - 13 Spectra - Some More Complex Molecules
  • Carbon - 13 Spectra - Some Chemical Shift Values
  • Propan - 1 - ol and Propan - 2 - ol
  • Propanal and Propanone
  • Proton NMR Spectroscopy
  • Proton NMR Spectra - Some Chemical Shift Values
  • The Integration Trace
  • Proton NMR Spectra - Some Simple Cases
  • Spin-Spin Coupling
  • Spin-Spin Coupling Peaks Explained
  • Spin-Spin Coupling Peaks Examples
  • OH and NH Protons
  • Use of Heavy Water
  • Examples
  • Medical Uses of NMR
  • Conical pendulum
  • Waltzer
  • Gravity surveys example 2
  • Gravity surveys example 3
  • Gravity surveys example 4